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Title 31 Part 354

Title 31 → Subtitle B → Chapter II → Subchapter A → Part 354

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 31 Part 354

e-CFR data is current as of December 12, 2019

Title 31Subtitle BChapter IISubchapter A → Part 354


Title 31: Money and Finance: Treasury


§354.0   Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.

(a) A Sallie Mae Security may be maintained in the form of a Definitive Sallie Mae Security or a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security. A Book-entry Sallie Mae Security shall be maintained in the Book-entry System.

(b) The Sallie Mae Securities to which the regulations in this part apply are obligations which, by the terms of their issue, are available exclusively as Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities or which, pursuant to the securities documentation, are convertible from Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities to Definitive Sallie Mae Securities or vice versa.

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§354.1   Definitions of terms.

(a) Adverse claim means a claim that a claimant has a property interest in a Security and that it is a violation of the rights of the claimant for another Person to hold, transfer, or deal with the Security.

(b) Book-entry Sallie Mae Security means a Sallie Mae Security issued or maintained in the Book-entry System.

(c) Book-entry System means the automated book-entry system operated by the Federal Reserve Banks acting as the fiscal agent for Sallie Mae, on which Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities are issued, recorded, transferred and maintained in book-entry form.

(d) Definitive Sallie Mae Security means a Sallie Mae Security in engraved or printed form, or that is otherwise represented by a certificate.

(e) Eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Security means a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security issued or maintained in the Book-entry System which by the terms of its Security Documentation is available in either definitive or book-entry form.

(f) Entitlement holder means a Person to whose account an interest in a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security is credited on the records of a Securities Intermediary.

(g) Federal Reserve Bank means a Federal Reserve Bank or Branch.

(h) Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circular means the publication issued by each Federal Reserve Bank that sets forth the terms and conditions under which the Federal Reserve Bank maintains book-entry Securities accounts (including Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities) and transfers book-entry Securities (including Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities).

(i) Funds account means a reserve and/or clearing account at a Federal Reserve Bank to which debits or credits are posted for transfers against payment, book-entry securities transaction fees, or principal and interest payments.

(j) Participant means a Person that maintains a Participant's Securities Account with a Federal Reserve Bank.

(k) Participant's securities account means an account in the name of a Participant at a Federal Reserve Bank to which Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities held for a Participant are or may be credited.

(l) Person means and includes an individual, corporation, company, governmental entity, association, firm, partnership, trust, estate, representative, and any other similar organization, but does not mean or include the United States, Sallie Mae, or a Federal Reserve Bank.

(m) Revised Article 8 means Uniform Commercial Code, Revised Article 8, Investment Securities (with Conforming and Miscellaneous Amendments to Articles 1, 3, 4, 5, 9, and 10) 1994 Official Text. Revised Article 8 of the Uniform Commercial Code is incorporated by reference in this part pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Article 8 was adopted by the American Law Institute and the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State laws and approved by the American Bar Association on February 14, 1995. Copies of this publication are available from the Executive Office of the American Law Institute, 4025 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, and the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws, 676 North St. Clair Street, Suite 1700, Chicago, IL 60611. Copies are also available for public inspection at the Department of the Treasury Library, Room 5030, main Treasury Building, 1500 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington D.C. 20220, and at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal__register/code__of__federal__regulations/ibr__locations.html.

(n) Sallie Mae means the Student Loan Marketing Association, a stock holder-owned corporation and government-sponsored enterprise established in 1972 by, and operating pursuant to, section 439 of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, 20 U.S.C. 1087-2.

(o) Sallie Mae security means any security or obligation of Sallie Mae issued in the form of a Definitive Sallie Mae Security or a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security.

(p) Securities documentation means the applicable statement of terms and conditions or other documents establishing the terms of a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security.

(q) Securities intermediary means:

(1) A Person that is registered as a “clearing agency” under the federal securities laws; a Federal Reserve Bank; any other Person that provides clearance or settlement services with respect to a Book-entry Security that would require it to register as a clearing agency under the federal securities laws but for an exclusion or exemption from the registration requirement, if its activities as a clearing corporation, including promulgation of rules, are subject to regulation by a federal or state governmental authority; or

(2) A Person (other than an individual, unless such individual is registered as a broker or dealer under the federal securities laws) including a bank or broker, that in the ordinary course of its business maintains securities accounts for others and is acting in that capacity.

(r) Security means any note, bond, debenture, evidence of indebtedness, or, in general, any interest or instrument commonly known as a “security.”

(s) Security entitlement means the rights and property interest of an Entitlement Holder with respect to a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security.

(t) State means any state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or any other territory or possession of the United States.

(u) Transfer message means an instruction of a Participant to a Federal Reserve Bank to effect a transfer of a Book-entry Security (including a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security) maintained in the Book-entry System, as set forth in Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars.

[62 FR 622, Jan. 6, 1997, as amended at 69 FR 18803, Apr. 9, 2004]

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§354.2   Law governing rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any Person against Federal Reserve Banks and Sallie Mae.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the following are governed solely by the book-entry regulations contained in this part 354, the Securities Documentation (to the extent not inconsistent with these regulations) and Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars:

(1) The rights and obligations of Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks with respect to:

(i) A Book-entry Sallie Mae Security or Security Entitlement; and

(ii) The operation of the Book-entry System as it applies to Sallie Mae Securities; and

(2) The rights of any Person, including a Participant, against Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks with respect to:

(i) A Book-entry Sallie Mae Security or Security Entitlement; and

(ii) The operation of the Book-entry System as it applies to Sallie Mae Securities.

(b) A security interest in a Security Entitlement that is in favor of a Federal Reserve Bank from a Participant and that is not recorded on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank pursuant to §354.4(c)(1), is governed by the law (not including the conflict-of-law rules) of the jurisdiction where the head office of the Federal Reserve Bank maintaining the Participant's Securities Account is located. A security interest in a Security Entitlement that is in favor of a Federal Reserve Bank from a Person that is not a Participant, and that is not recorded on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank pursuant to §354.14(c)(1), is governed by the law determined in the manner specified in §354.3.

(c) If the jurisdiction specified in the first sentence of paragraph (b) of this section is a State that has not adopted Revised Article 8 (incorporated by reference, see §354.1), then the law specified in paragraph (b) shall be the law of that State as though Revised Article 8 had been adopted by that State.

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§354.3   Law governing other interests.

(a) To the extent not inconsistent with the regulations in this part, the law (not including the conflict-of-law rules) of a Securities Intermediary's jurisdiction governs:

(1) The acquisition of a Security Entitlement from the Securities Intermediary;

(2) The rights and duties of the Securities Intermediary and Entitlement Holder arising out of a Security Entitlement;

(3) Whether the Securities Intermediary owes any duties to an adverse claimant to a Security Entitlement;

(4) Whether an Adverse Claim can be asserted against a Person who acquires a Security Entitlement from the Securities Intermediary or a Person who purchases a Security Entitlement or interest therein from an Entitlement Holder; and

(5) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the perfection, effect of perfection or non-perfection and priority of a security interest in a Security Entitlement.

(b) The following rules determine a “Securities Intermediary's jurisdiction” for purposes of this section:

(1) If an agreement between the Securities Intermediary and its Entitlement Holder specifies that it is governed by the law of a particular jurisdiction, that jurisdiction is the Securities Intermediary's jurisdiction.

(2) If an agreement between the Securities Intermediary and its Entitlement Holder does not specify the governing law as provided in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, but expressly specifies that the securities account is maintained at an office in a particular jurisdiction, that jurisdiction is the Securities Intermediary's jurisdiction.

(3) If an agreement between the Securities Intermediary and its Entitlement Holder does not specify a jurisdiction as provided in paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section, the Securities Intermediary's jurisdiction is the jurisdiction in which is located the office identified in an account statement as the office serving the Entitlement Holder's account.

(4) If an agreement between the Securities Intermediary and its Entitlement Holder does not specify a jurisdiction as provided in paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section and an account statement does not identify an office serving the Entitlement Holder's account as provided in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, the Securities Intermediary's jurisdiction is the jurisdiction in which is located the chief executive office of the Securities Intermediary.

(c) Notwithstanding the general rule in paragraph (a)(5) of this section, the law (but not the conflict-of-law rules) of the jurisdiction in which the Person creating a security interest is located governs whether and how the security interest may be perfected automatically or by filing a financing statement.

(d) If the jurisdiction specified in paragraph (b) of this section is a State that has not adopted Revised Article 8 (incorporated by reference, see §354.1), then the law for the matters specified in paragraph (a) of this section shall be the law of that State as though Revised Article 8 had been adopted by that State. For purposes of the application of the matters specified in paragraph (a) of this section, the Federal Reserve Bank maintaining the Participant's Securities Account is a clearing corporation, and the Participant's interest in a Book-entry Security is a Security Entitlement.

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§354.4   Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; security interests.

(a) A Participant's Security Entitlement is created when a Federal Reserve Bank indicates by book-entry that a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security has been credited to a Participant's Securities Account.

(b) A security interest in a Security Entitlement of a Participant in favor of the United States to secure deposits of public money, including without limitation deposits to the Treasury tax and loan accounts, or other security interest in favor of the United States that is required by Federal statute, regulation, or agreement, and that is marked on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank is thereby effected and perfected, and has priority over any other interest in the securities. Where a security interest in favor of the United States in a Security Entitlement of a Participant is marked on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank, such Federal Reserve Bank may rely, and is protected in relying, exclusively on the order of an authorized representative of the United States directing the transfer of the security. For purposes of this paragraph, an “authorized representative of the United States” is the official designated in the applicable regulations or agreement to which a Federal Reserve Bank is a party, governing the security interest.

(c)(1) Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks have no obligation to agree to act on behalf of any Person or to recognize the interest of any transferee of a security interest or other limited interest in favor of any Person except to the extent of any specific requirement of Federal law or regulation or to the extent set forth in any specific agreement with the Federal Reserve Bank on whose books the interest of the Participant is recorded. To the extent required by such law or regulation or set forth in an agreement with a Federal Reserve Bank, or the Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circular, a security interest in a Security Entitlement that is in favor of a Federal Reserve Bank, Sallie Mae, or a Person may be created and perfected by a Federal Reserve Bank marking its books to record the security interest. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a security interest in a Security Entitlement marked on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank shall have priority over any other interest in the securities.

(2) In addition to the method provided in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, a security interest, including a security interest in favor of a Federal Reserve Bank, may be perfected by any method by which a security interest may be perfected under applicable law as described in §354.2(b) or §354.3. The perfection, effect of perfection or non-perfection and priority of a security interest are governed by such applicable law. A security interest in favor of a Federal Reserve Bank shall be treated as a security interest in favor of a clearing corporation in all respects under such law, including with respect to the effect of perfection and priority of such security interest. A Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circular shall be treated as a rule adopted by a clearing corporation for such purposes.

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§354.5   Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims.

(a) Except in the case of a security interest in favor of the United States or a Federal Reserve Bank or otherwise as provided in §354.4(c)(1), for the purposes of this part 354, Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks shall treat the Participant to whose Securities Account an interest in a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security has been credited as the person exclusively entitled to issue a Transfer Message, to receive interest and other payments with respect thereof and otherwise to exercise all the rights and powers with respect to such Security, notwithstanding any information or notice to the contrary. Neither the Federal Reserve Banks nor Sallie Mae is liable to a Person asserting or having an Adverse Claim to a Security Entitlement or to a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security in a Participant's Securities Account, including any such claim arising as a result of the transfer or disposition of a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security by a Federal Reserve Bank pursuant to a Transfer Message that the Federal Reserve Bank reasonably believes to be genuine.

(b) The obligation of Sallie Mae to make payments of interest and principal with respect to Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities is discharged at the time payment in the appropriate amount is made as follows:

(1) Interest on Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities is either credited by a Federal Reserve Bank to a Funds Account maintained at such Bank or otherwise paid as directed by the Participant.

(2) Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities are redeemed at maturity or pursuant to a call for redemption in accordance with their terms by a Federal Reserve Bank withdrawing the securities from the Participant's Securities Account in which they are maintained and by either crediting the amount of the redemption proceeds, including both principal and interest where applicable, to a Funds Account at such Bank or otherwise paying such principal and interest, as directed by the Participant.

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§354.6   Authority of Federal Reserve Banks.

(a) Each Federal Reserve Bank is hereby authorized as fiscal agent of Sallie Mae to perform functions with respect to the issuance of Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities offered and sold by Sallie Mae, in accordance with the Securities Documentation, and Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars; to service and maintain Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities in accounts established for such purposes; to make payments of principal and interest with respect to such Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities as directed by Sallie Mae; to effect transfer of Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities between Participants' Securities Account as directed by the Participants; to effect conversions between Book-entry Sallie Mae securities and Definitive Sallie Mae Securities with respect to those securities as to which conversion rights are available pursuant to the applicable Securities Documentation; and to perform such other duties as fiscal agent as may be requested by Sallie Mae.

(b) Each Federal Reserve Bank may issue Operating Circulars not inconsistent with this part, governing the details of its handling of Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities, Security Entitlements, and the operation of the Book-entry System under this part.

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§354.7   Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form.

(a) Eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities may be withdrawn from the Book-entry System by requesting delivery of like Definitive Sallie Mae Securities.

(b) A Federal Reserve Bank shall, upon receipt of appropriate instructions to withdraw Eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities from book-entry in the Book-entry System, convert such securities into Definitive Sallie Mae Securities and deliver them in accordance with such instructions. No such conversion shall affect existing interests in such Sallie Mae Securities.

(c) All requests for withdrawal of Eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities must be made prior to the maturity or date of call of such securities.

(d) Sallie Mae Securities which are to be delivered upon withdrawal may be issued in either registered or bearer form, to the extent permitted by the applicable Securities Documentation.

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§354.8   Waiver of regulations.

The Secretary reserves the right, in the Secretary's discretion, to waive any provision(s) of the regulations in this part in any case or class of cases for the convenience of Sallie Mae, or in order to relieve any person or entity of unnecessary hardship, if such action is not inconsistent with law, does not adversely affect substantial existing rights, and the Secretary is satisfied that such action will not subject Sallie Mae to any substantial expense or liability.

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§354.9   Liability of Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks.

Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks may rely on the information provided in a Transfer Message, and are not required to verify the information. Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks shall not be liable for any action taken in accordance with the information set out in a Transfer Message or evidence submitted in support thereof.

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§354.10   Additional provisions.

(a) Additional requirements. In any case or any class of cases arising under these regulations, Sallie Mae may require such additional evidence and a bond of indemnity, with or without surety, as may in the judgment of Sallie Mae be necessary for the protection of the interests of Sallie Mae.

(b) Notice of attachment for Sallie Mae Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by a creditor only by legal process upon the Securities Intermediary with whom the debtor's securities account is maintained, except where a Security Entitlement is maintained in the name of a secured party, in which case the debtor's interest may be reached by legal process upon the secured party. The regulations in this part do not purport to establish whether a Federal Reserve Bank is required to honor an order or other notice of attachment in any particular case or class of cases.

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