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Title 2 Part 200 → Subpart D

Title 2 → Subtitle A → Chapter II → Part 200 → Subpart D

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 2 Part 200 → Subpart D

e-CFR data is current as of November 14, 2019

Title 2Subtitle AChapter IIPart 200 → Subpart D


Title 2: Grants and Agreements
PART 200—UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, COST PRINCIPLES, AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS


Subpart D—Post Federal Award Requirements


Contents

Standards for Financial and Program Management

§200.300   Statutory and national policy requirements.
§200.301   Performance measurement.
§200.302   Financial management.
§200.303   Internal controls.
§200.304   Bonds.
§200.305   Payment.
§200.306   Cost sharing or matching.
§200.307   Program income.
§200.308   Revision of budget and program plans.
§200.309   Period of performance.

Property Standards

§200.310   Insurance coverage.
§200.311   Real property.
§200.312   Federally-owned and exempt property.
§200.313   Equipment.
§200.314   Supplies.
§200.315   Intangible property.
§200.316   Property trust relationship.

Procurement Standards

§200.317   Procurements by states.
§200.318   General procurement standards.
§200.319   Competition.
§200.320   Methods of procurement to be followed.
§200.321   Contracting with small and minority businesses, women's business enterprises, and labor surplus area firms.
§200.322   Procurement of recovered materials.
§200.323   Contract cost and price.
§200.324   Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity review.
§200.325   Bonding requirements.
§200.326   Contract provisions.

Performance and Financial Monitoring and Reporting

§200.327   Financial reporting.
§200.328   Monitoring and reporting program performance.
§200.329   Reporting on real property.

Subrecipient Monitoring and Management

§200.330   Subrecipient and contractor determinations.
§200.331   Requirements for pass-through entities.
§200.332   Fixed amount subawards.

Record Retention and Access

§200.333   Retention requirements for records.
§200.334   Requests for transfer of records.
§200.335   Methods for collection, transmission and storage of information.
§200.336   Access to records.
§200.337   Restrictions on public access to records.

Remedies for Noncompliance

§200.338   Remedies for noncompliance.
§200.339   Termination.
§200.340   Notification of termination requirement.
§200.341   Opportunities to object, hearings and appeals.
§200.342   Effects of suspension and termination.

Closeout

§200.343   Closeout.

Post-Closeout Adjustments and Continuing Responsibilities

§200.344   Post-closeout adjustments and continuing responsibilities.

Collection of Amounts Due

§200.345   Collection of amounts due.

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Standards for Financial and Program Management

§200.300   Statutory and national policy requirements.

(a) The Federal awarding agency must manage and administer the Federal award in a manner so as to ensure that Federal funding is expended and associated programs are implemented in full accordance with U.S. statutory and public policy requirements: including, but not limited to, those protecting public welfare, the environment, and prohibiting discrimination. The Federal awarding agency must communicate to the non-Federal entity all relevant public policy requirements, including those in general appropriations provisions, and incorporate them either directly or by reference in the terms and conditions of the Federal award.

(b) The non-Federal entity is responsible for complying with all requirements of the Federal award. For all Federal awards, this includes the provisions of FFATA, which includes requirements on executive compensation, and also requirements implementing the Act for the non-Federal entity at 2 CFR part 25 Financial Assistance Use of Universal Identifier and System for Award Management and 2 CFR part 170 Reporting Subaward and Executive Compensation Information. See also statutory requirements for whistleblower protections at 10 U.S.C. 2409, 41 U.S.C. 4712, and 10 U.S.C. 2324, 41 U.S.C. 4304 and 4310.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 80 FR 43309, July 22, 2015]

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§200.301   Performance measurement.

The Federal awarding agency must require the recipient to use OMB-approved standard information collections when providing financial and performance information. As appropriate and in accordance with above mentioned information collections, the Federal awarding agency must require the recipient to relate financial data to performance accomplishments of the Federal award. Also, in accordance with above mentioned standard information collections, and when applicable, recipients must also provide cost information to demonstrate cost effective practices (e.g., through unit cost data). The recipient's performance should be measured in a way that will help the Federal awarding agency and other non-Federal entities to improve program outcomes, share lessons learned, and spread the adoption of promising practices. The Federal awarding agency should provide recipients with clear performance goals, indicators, and milestones as described in §200.210 Information contained in a Federal award. Performance reporting frequency and content should be established to not only allow the Federal awarding agency to understand the recipient progress but also to facilitate identification of promising practices among recipients and build the evidence upon which the Federal awarding agency's program and performance decisions are made.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75883, Dec. 19, 2014]

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§200.302   Financial management.

(a) Each state must expend and account for the Federal award in accordance with state laws and procedures for expending and accounting for the state's own funds. In addition, the state's and the other non-Federal entity's financial management systems, including records documenting compliance with Federal statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of the Federal award, must be sufficient to permit the preparation of reports required by general and program-specific terms and conditions; and the tracing of funds to a level of expenditures adequate to establish that such funds have been used according to the Federal statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of the Federal award. See also §200.450 Lobbying.

(b) The financial management system of each non-Federal entity must provide for the following (see also §§200.333 Retention requirements for records, 200.334 Requests for transfer of records, 200.335 Methods for collection, transmission and storage of information, 200.336 Access to records, and 200.337 Restrictions on public access to records):

(1) Identification, in its accounts, of all Federal awards received and expended and the Federal programs under which they were received. Federal program and Federal award identification must include, as applicable, the CFDA title and number, Federal award identification number and year, name of the Federal agency, and name of the pass-through entity, if any.

(2) Accurate, current, and complete disclosure of the financial results of each Federal award or program in accordance with the reporting requirements set forth in §§200.327 Financial reporting and 200.328 Monitoring and reporting program performance. If a Federal awarding agency requires reporting on an accrual basis from a recipient that maintains its records on other than an accrual basis, the recipient must not be required to establish an accrual accounting system. This recipient may develop accrual data for its reports on the basis of an analysis of the documentation on hand. Similarly, a pass-through entity must not require a subrecipient to establish an accrual accounting system and must allow the subrecipient to develop accrual data for its reports on the basis of an analysis of the documentation on hand.

(3) Records that identify adequately the source and application of funds for federally-funded activities. These records must contain information pertaining to Federal awards, authorizations, obligations, unobligated balances, assets, expenditures, income and interest and be supported by source documentation.

(4) Effective control over, and accountability for, all funds, property, and other assets. The non-Federal entity must adequately safeguard all assets and assure that they are used solely for authorized purposes. See §200.303 Internal controls.

(5) Comparison of expenditures with budget amounts for each Federal award.

(6) Written procedures to implement the requirements of §200.305 Payment.

(7) Written procedures for determining the allowability of costs in accordance with Subpart E—Cost Principles of this part and the terms and conditions of the Federal award.

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§200.303   Internal controls.

The non-Federal entity must:

(a) Establish and maintain effective internal control over the Federal award that provides reasonable assurance that the non-Federal entity is managing the Federal award in compliance with Federal statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of the Federal award. These internal controls should be in compliance with guidance in “Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government” issued by the Comptroller General of the United States or the “Internal Control Integrated Framework”, issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).

(b) Comply with Federal statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of the Federal awards.

(c) Evaluate and monitor the non-Federal entity's compliance with statutes, regulations and the terms and conditions of Federal awards.

(d) Take prompt action when instances of noncompliance are identified including noncompliance identified in audit findings.

(e) Take reasonable measures to safeguard protected personally identifiable information and other information the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity designates as sensitive or the non-Federal entity considers sensitive consistent with applicable Federal, state, local, and tribal laws regarding privacy and obligations of confidentiality.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75883, Dec. 19, 2014]

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§200.304   Bonds.

The Federal awarding agency may include a provision on bonding, insurance, or both in the following circumstances:

(a) Where the Federal Government guarantees or insures the repayment of money borrowed by the recipient, the Federal awarding agency, at its discretion, may require adequate bonding and insurance if the bonding and insurance requirements of the non-Federal entity are not deemed adequate to protect the interest of the Federal Government.

(b) The Federal awarding agency may require adequate fidelity bond coverage where the non-Federal entity lacks sufficient coverage to protect the Federal Government's interest.

(c) Where bonds are required in the situations described above, the bonds must be obtained from companies holding certificates of authority as acceptable sureties, as prescribed in 31 CFR Part 223, “Surety Companies Doing Business with the United States.”

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§200.305   Payment.

(a) For states, payments are governed by Treasury-State CMIA agreements and default procedures codified at 31 CFR Part 205 “Rules and Procedures for Efficient Federal-State Funds Transfers” and TFM 4A-2000 Overall Disbursing Rules for All Federal Agencies.

(b) For non-Federal entities other than states, payments methods must minimize the time elapsing between the transfer of funds from the United States Treasury or the pass-through entity and the disbursement by the non-Federal entity whether the payment is made by electronic funds transfer, or issuance or redemption of checks, warrants, or payment by other means. See also §200.302 Financial management paragraph (b)(6). Except as noted elsewhere in this part, Federal agencies must require recipients to use only OMB-approved standard governmentwide information collection requests to request payment.

(1) The non-Federal entity must be paid in advance, provided it maintains or demonstrates the willingness to maintain both written procedures that minimize the time elapsing between the transfer of funds and disbursement by the non-Federal entity, and financial management systems that meet the standards for fund control and accountability as established in this part. Advance payments to a non-Federal entity must be limited to the minimum amounts needed and be timed to be in accordance with the actual, immediate cash requirements of the non-Federal entity in carrying out the purpose of the approved program or project. The timing and amount of advance payments must be as close as is administratively feasible to the actual disbursements by the non-Federal entity for direct program or project costs and the proportionate share of any allowable indirect costs. The non-Federal entity must make timely payment to contractors in accordance with the contract provisions.

(2) Whenever possible, advance payments must be consolidated to cover anticipated cash needs for all Federal awards made by the Federal awarding agency to the recipient.

(i) Advance payment mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Treasury check and electronic funds transfer and must comply with applicable guidance in 31 CFR part 208.

(ii) Non-Federal entities must be authorized to submit requests for advance payments and reimbursements at least monthly when electronic fund transfers are not used, and as often as they like when electronic transfers are used, in accordance with the provisions of the Electronic Fund Transfer Act (15 U.S.C. 1693-1693r).

(3) Reimbursement is the preferred method when the requirements in paragraph (b) cannot be met, when the Federal awarding agency sets a specific condition per §200.207 Specific conditions, or when the non-Federal entity requests payment by reimbursement. This method may be used on any Federal award for construction, or if the major portion of the construction project is accomplished through private market financing or Federal loans, and the Federal award constitutes a minor portion of the project. When the reimbursement method is used, the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity must make payment within 30 calendar days after receipt of the billing, unless the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity reasonably believes the request to be improper.

(4) If the non-Federal entity cannot meet the criteria for advance payments and the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity has determined that reimbursement is not feasible because the non-Federal entity lacks sufficient working capital, the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity may provide cash on a working capital advance basis. Under this procedure, the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity must advance cash payments to the non-Federal entity to cover its estimated disbursement needs for an initial period generally geared to the non-Federal entity's disbursing cycle. Thereafter, the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity must reimburse the non-Federal entity for its actual cash disbursements. Use of the working capital advance method of payment requires that the pass-through entity provide timely advance payments to any subrecipients in order to meet the subrecipient's actual cash disbursements. The working capital advance method of payment must not be used by the pass-through entity if the reason for using this method is the unwillingness or inability of the pass-through entity to provide timely advance payments to the subrecipient to meet the subrecipient's actual cash disbursements.

(5) Use of resources before requesting cash advance payments. To the extent available, the non-Federal entity must disburse funds available from program income (including repayments to a revolving fund), rebates, refunds, contract settlements, audit recoveries, and interest earned on such funds before requesting additional cash payments.

(6) Unless otherwise required by Federal statutes, payments for allowable costs by non-Federal entities must not be withheld at any time during the period of performance unless the conditions of §§200.207 Specific conditions, Subpart D—Post Federal Award Requirements of this part, 200.338 Remedies for Noncompliance, or one or more of the following applies:

(i) The non-Federal entity has failed to comply with the project objectives, Federal statutes, regulations, or the terms and conditions of the Federal award.

(ii) The non-Federal entity is delinquent in a debt to the United States as defined in OMB Guidance A-129, “Policies for Federal Credit Programs and Non-Tax Receivables.” Under such conditions, the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity may, upon reasonable notice, inform the non-Federal entity that payments must not be made for obligations incurred after a specified date until the conditions are corrected or the indebtedness to the Federal Government is liquidated.

(iii) A payment withheld for failure to comply with Federal award conditions, but without suspension of the Federal award, must be released to the non-Federal entity upon subsequent compliance. When a Federal award is suspended, payment adjustments will be made in accordance with §200.342 Effects of suspension and termination.

(iv) A payment must not be made to a non-Federal entity for amounts that are withheld by the non-Federal entity from payment to contractors to assure satisfactory completion of work. A payment must be made when the non-Federal entity actually disburses the withheld funds to the contractors or to escrow accounts established to assure satisfactory completion of work.

(7) Standards governing the use of banks and other institutions as depositories of advance payments under Federal awards are as follows.

(i) The Federal awarding agency and pass-through entity must not require separate depository accounts for funds provided to a non-Federal entity or establish any eligibility requirements for depositories for funds provided to the non-Federal entity. However, the non-Federal entity must be able to account for the receipt, obligation and expenditure of funds.

(ii) Advance payments of Federal funds must be deposited and maintained in insured accounts whenever possible.

(8) The non-Federal entity must maintain advance payments of Federal awards in interest-bearing accounts, unless the following apply.

(i) The non-Federal entity receives less than $120,000 in Federal awards per year.

(ii) The best reasonably available interest-bearing account would not be expected to earn interest in excess of $500 per year on Federal cash balances.

(iii) The depository would require an average or minimum balance so high that it would not be feasible within the expected Federal and non-Federal cash resources.

(iv) A foreign government or banking system prohibits or precludes interest bearing accounts.

(9) Interest earned amounts up to $500 per year may be retained by the non-Federal entity for administrative expense. Any additional interest earned on Federal advance payments deposited in interest-bearing accounts must be remitted annually to the Department of Health and Human Services Payment Management System (PMS) through an electronic medium using either Automated Clearing House (ACH) network or a Fedwire Funds Service payment. Remittances must include pertinent information of the payee and nature of payment in the memo area (often referred to as “addenda records” by Financial Institutions) as that will assist in the timely posting of interest earned on federal funds. Pertinent details include the Payee Account Number (PAN) if the payment originated from PMS, or Agency information if the payment originated from ASAP, NSF or another federal agency payment system. The remittance must be submitted as follows:

(i) For ACH Returns:

Routing Number: 051036706

Account number: 303000

Bank Name and Location: Credit Gateway—ACH Receiver St. Paul, MN

(ii) For Fedwire Returns*:

Routing Number: 021030004

Account number: 75010501

Bank Name and Location: Federal Reserve Bank Treas NYC/Funds Transfer Division New York, NY

(* Please note organization initiating payment is likely to incur a charge from your Financial Institution for this type of payment)

(iii) For International ACH Returns:

Beneficiary Account: Federal Reserve Bank of New York/ITS (FRBNY/ITS)

Bank: Citibank N.A. (New York)

Swift Code: CITIUS33

Account Number: 36838868

Bank Address: 388 Greenwich Street, New York, NY 10013 USA

Payment Details (Line 70): Agency

Name (abbreviated when possible) and ALC Agency POC: Michelle Haney, (301) 492-5065

(iv) For recipients that do not have electronic remittance capability, please make check** payable to: “The Department of Health and Human Services.”

Mail Check to Treasury approved lockbox:

HHS Program Support Center, P.O. Box 530231, Atlanta, GA 30353-0231

(** Please allow 4-6 weeks for processing of a payment by check to be applied to the appropriate PMS account)

(v) Any additional information/instructions may be found on the PMS Web site at http://www.dpm.psc.gov/.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75883, Dec. 19, 2014; 80 FR 54408, Sept. 10, 2015]

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§200.306   Cost sharing or matching.

(a) Under Federal research proposals, voluntary committed cost sharing is not expected. It cannot be used as a factor during the merit review of applications or proposals, but may be considered if it is both in accordance with Federal awarding agency regulations and specified in a notice of funding opportunity. Criteria for considering voluntary committed cost sharing and any other program policy factors that may be used to determine who may receive a Federal award must be explicitly described in the notice of funding opportunity. See also §§200.414 Indirect (F&A) costs, 200.203 Notices of funding opportunities, and Appendix I to Part 200—Full Text of Notice of Funding Opportunity.

(b) For all Federal awards, any shared costs or matching funds and all contributions, including cash and third party in-kind contributions, must be accepted as part of the non-Federal entity's cost sharing or matching when such contributions meet all of the following criteria:

(1) Are verifiable from the non-Federal entity's records;

(2) Are not included as contributions for any other Federal award;

(3) Are necessary and reasonable for accomplishment of project or program objectives;

(4) Are allowable under Subpart E—Cost Principles of this part;

(5) Are not paid by the Federal Government under another Federal award, except where the Federal statute authorizing a program specifically provides that Federal funds made available for such program can be applied to matching or cost sharing requirements of other Federal programs;

(6) Are provided for in the approved budget when required by the Federal awarding agency; and

(7) Conform to other provisions of this part, as applicable.

(c) Unrecovered indirect costs, including indirect costs on cost sharing or matching may be included as part of cost sharing or matching only with the prior approval of the Federal awarding agency. Unrecovered indirect cost means the difference between the amount charged to the Federal award and the amount which could have been charged to the Federal award under the non-Federal entity's approved negotiated indirect cost rate.

(d) Values for non-Federal entity contributions of services and property must be established in accordance with the cost principles in Subpart E—Cost Principles. If a Federal awarding agency authorizes the non-Federal entity to donate buildings or land for construction/facilities acquisition projects or long-term use, the value of the donated property for cost sharing or matching must be the lesser of paragraphs (d)(1) or (2) of this section.

(1) The value of the remaining life of the property recorded in the non-Federal entity's accounting records at the time of donation.

(2) The current fair market value. However, when there is sufficient justification, the Federal awarding agency may approve the use of the current fair market value of the donated property, even if it exceeds the value described in (1) above at the time of donation.

(e) Volunteer services furnished by third-party professional and technical personnel, consultants, and other skilled and unskilled labor may be counted as cost sharing or matching if the service is an integral and necessary part of an approved project or program. Rates for third-party volunteer services must be consistent with those paid for similar work by the non-Federal entity. In those instances in which the required skills are not found in the non-Federal entity, rates must be consistent with those paid for similar work in the labor market in which the non-Federal entity competes for the kind of services involved. In either case, paid fringe benefits that are reasonable, necessary, allocable, and otherwise allowable may be included in the valuation.

(f) When a third-party organization furnishes the services of an employee, these services must be valued at the employee's regular rate of pay plus an amount of fringe benefits that is reasonable, necessary, allocable, and otherwise allowable, and indirect costs at either the third-party organization's approved federally negotiated indirect cost rate or, a rate in accordance with §200.414 Indirect (F&A) costs, paragraph (d), provided these services employ the same skill(s) for which the employee is normally paid. Where donated services are treated as indirect costs, indirect cost rates will separate the value of the donated services so that reimbursement for the donated services will not be made.

(g) Donated property from third parties may include such items as equipment, office supplies, laboratory supplies, or workshop and classroom supplies. Value assessed to donated property included in the cost sharing or matching share must not exceed the fair market value of the property at the time of the donation.

(h) The method used for determining cost sharing or matching for third-party-donated equipment, buildings and land for which title passes to the non-Federal entity may differ according to the purpose of the Federal award, if paragraph (h)(1) or (2) of this section applies.

(1) If the purpose of the Federal award is to assist the non-Federal entity in the acquisition of equipment, buildings or land, the aggregate value of the donated property may be claimed as cost sharing or matching.

(2) If the purpose of the Federal award is to support activities that require the use of equipment, buildings or land, normally only depreciation charges for equipment and buildings may be made. However, the fair market value of equipment or other capital assets and fair rental charges for land may be allowed, provided that the Federal awarding agency has approved the charges. See also §200.420 Considerations for selected items of cost.

(i) The value of donated property must be determined in accordance with the usual accounting policies of the non-Federal entity, with the following qualifications:

(1) The value of donated land and buildings must not exceed its fair market value at the time of donation to the non-Federal entity as established by an independent appraiser (e.g., certified real property appraiser or General Services Administration representative) and certified by a responsible official of the non-Federal entity as required by the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, as amended, (42 U.S.C. 4601-4655) (Uniform Act) except as provided in the implementing regulations at 49 CFR part 24.

(2) The value of donated equipment must not exceed the fair market value of equipment of the same age and condition at the time of donation.

(3) The value of donated space must not exceed the fair rental value of comparable space as established by an independent appraisal of comparable space and facilities in a privately-owned building in the same locality.

(4) The value of loaned equipment must not exceed its fair rental value.

(j) For third-party in-kind contributions, the fair market value of goods and services must be documented and to the extent feasible supported by the same methods used internally by the non-Federal entity.

(k) For IHEs, see also OMB memorandum M-01-06, dated January 5, 2001, Clarification of OMB A-21 Treatment of Voluntary Uncommitted Cost Sharing and Tuition Remission Costs.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75883, Dec. 19, 2014]

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§200.307   Program income.

(a) General. Non-Federal entities are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs where appropriate.

(b) Cost of generating program income. If authorized by Federal regulations or the Federal award, costs incidental to the generation of program income may be deducted from gross income to determine program income, provided these costs have not been charged to the Federal award.

(c) Governmental revenues. Taxes, special assessments, levies, fines, and other such revenues raised by a non-Federal entity are not program income unless the revenues are specifically identified in the Federal award or Federal awarding agency regulations as program income.

(d) Property. Proceeds from the sale of real property, equipment, or supplies are not program income; such proceeds will be handled in accordance with the requirements of Subpart D—Post Federal Award Requirements of this part, Property Standards §§200.311 Real property, 200.313 Equipment, and 200.314 Supplies, or as specifically identified in Federal statutes, regulations, or the terms and conditions of the Federal award.

(e) Use of program income. If the Federal awarding agency does not specify in its regulations or the terms and conditions of the Federal award, or give prior approval for how program income is to be used, paragraph (e)(1) of this section must apply. For Federal awards made to IHEs and nonprofit research institutions, if the Federal awarding agency does not specify in its regulations or the terms and conditions of the Federal award how program income is to be used, paragraph (e)(2) of this section must apply. In specifying alternatives to paragraphs (e)(1) and (2) of this section, the Federal awarding agency may distinguish between income earned by the recipient and income earned by subrecipients and between the sources, kinds, or amounts of income. When the Federal awarding agency authorizes the approaches in paragraphs (e)(2) and (3) of this section, program income in excess of any amounts specified must also be deducted from expenditures.

(1) Deduction. Ordinarily program income must be deducted from total allowable costs to determine the net allowable costs. Program income must be used for current costs unless the Federal awarding agency authorizes otherwise. Program income that the non-Federal entity did not anticipate at the time of the Federal award must be used to reduce the Federal award and non-Federal entity contributions rather than to increase the funds committed to the project.

(2) Addition. With prior approval of the Federal awarding agency (except for IHEs and nonprofit research institutions, as described in paragraph (e) of this section) program income may be added to the Federal award by the Federal agency and the non-Federal entity. The program income must be used for the purposes and under the conditions of the Federal award.

(3) Cost sharing or matching. With prior approval of the Federal awarding agency, program income may be used to meet the cost sharing or matching requirement of the Federal award. The amount of the Federal award remains the same.

(f) Income after the period of performance. There are no Federal requirements governing the disposition of income earned after the end of the period of performance for the Federal award, unless the Federal awarding agency regulations or the terms and conditions of the Federal award provide otherwise. The Federal awarding agency may negotiate agreements with recipients regarding appropriate uses of income earned after the period of performance as part of the grant closeout process. See also §200.343 Closeout.

(g) Unless the Federal statute, regulations, or terms and conditions for the Federal award provide otherwise, the non-Federal entity has no obligation to the Federal awarding agency with respect to program income earned from license fees and royalties for copyrighted material, patents, patent applications, trademarks, and inventions made under a Federal award to which 37 CFR part 401,“Rights to Inventions Made by Nonprofit Organizations and Small Business Firms Under Government Awards, Contracts and Cooperative Agreements” is applicable.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75884, Dec. 19, 2014]

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§200.308   Revision of budget and program plans.

(a) The approved budget for the Federal award summarizes the financial aspects of the project or program as approved during the Federal award process. It may include either the Federal and non-Federal share (see §200.43 Federal share) or only the Federal share, depending upon Federal awarding agency requirements. It must be related to performance for program evaluation purposes whenever appropriate.

(b) Recipients are required to report deviations from budget or project scope or objective, and request prior approvals from Federal awarding agencies for budget and program plan revisions, in accordance with this section.

(c)(1) For non-construction Federal awards, recipients must request prior approvals from Federal awarding agencies for one or more of the following program or budget-related reasons:

(i) Change in the scope or the objective of the project or program (even if there is no associated budget revision requiring prior written approval).

(ii) Change in a key person specified in the application or the Federal award.

(iii) The disengagement from the project for more than three months, or a 25 percent reduction in time devoted to the project, by the approved project director or principal investigator.

(iv) The inclusion, unless waived by the Federal awarding agency, of costs that require prior approval in accordance with Subpart E—Cost Principles of this part or 45 CFR part 75 Appendix IX, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development under Awards and Contracts with Hospitals,” or 48 CFR part 31, “Contract Cost Principles and Procedures,” as applicable.

(v) The transfer of funds budgeted for participant support costs as defined in §200.75 Participant support costs to other categories of expense.

(vi) Unless described in the application and funded in the approved Federal awards, the subawarding, transferring or contracting out of any work under a Federal award, including fixed amount subawards as described in §200.332 Fixed amount subawards. This provision does not apply to the acquisition of supplies, material, equipment or general support services.

(vii) Changes in the approved cost-sharing or matching provided by the non-Federal entity.

(viii) The need arises for additional Federal funds to complete the project.

(2) No other prior approval requirements for specific items may be imposed unless an exception has been approved by OMB. See also §§200.102 Exceptions and 200.407 Prior written approval (prior approval).

(d) Except for requirements listed in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the Federal awarding agency is authorized, at its option, to waive prior written approvals required by paragraph (c) this section. Such waivers may include authorizing recipients to do any one or more of the following:

(1) Incur project costs 90 calendar days before the Federal awarding agency makes the Federal award. Expenses more than 90 calendar days pre-award require prior approval of the Federal awarding agency. All costs incurred before the Federal awarding agency makes the Federal award are at the recipient's risk (i.e., the Federal awarding agency is under no obligation to reimburse such costs if for any reason the recipient does not receive a Federal award or if the Federal award is less than anticipated and inadequate to cover such costs). See also §200.458 Pre-award costs.

(2) Initiate a one-time extension of the period of performance by up to 12 months unless one or more of the conditions outlined in paragraphs (d)(2)(i) through (iii) of this section apply. For one-time extensions, the recipient must notify the Federal awarding agency in writing with the supporting reasons and revised period of performance at least 10 calendar days before the end of the period of performance specified in the Federal award. This one-time extension may not be exercised merely for the purpose of using unobligated balances. Extensions require explicit prior Federal awarding agency approval when:

(i) The terms and conditions of the Federal award prohibit the extension.

(ii) The extension requires additional Federal funds.

(iii) The extension involves any change in the approved objectives or scope of the project.

(3) Carry forward unobligated balances to subsequent periods of performance.

(4) For Federal awards that support research, unless the Federal awarding agency provides otherwise in the Federal award or in the Federal awarding agency's regulations, the prior approval requirements described in paragraph (d) are automatically waived (i.e., recipients need not obtain such prior approvals) unless one of the conditions included in paragraph (d)(2) applies.

(e) The Federal awarding agency may, at its option, restrict the transfer of funds among direct cost categories or programs, functions and activities for Federal awards in which the Federal share of the project exceeds the Simplified Acquisition Threshold and the cumulative amount of such transfers exceeds or is expected to exceed 10 percent of the total budget as last approved by the Federal awarding agency. The Federal awarding agency cannot permit a transfer that would cause any Federal appropriation to be used for purposes other than those consistent with the appropriation.

(f) All other changes to non-construction budgets, except for the changes described in paragraph (c) of this section, do not require prior approval (see also §200.407 Prior written approval (prior approval)).

(g) For construction Federal awards, the recipient must request prior written approval promptly from the Federal awarding agency for budget revisions whenever paragraph (g)(1), (2), or (3) of this section applies.

(1) The revision results from changes in the scope or the objective of the project or program.

(2) The need arises for additional Federal funds to complete the project.

(3) A revision is desired which involves specific costs for which prior written approval requirements may be imposed consistent with applicable OMB cost principles listed in Subpart E—Cost Principles of this part.

(4) No other prior approval requirements for budget revisions may be imposed unless an exception has been approved by OMB.

(5) When a Federal awarding agency makes a Federal award that provides support for construction and non-construction work, the Federal awarding agency may require the recipient to obtain prior approval from the Federal awarding agency before making any fund or budget transfers between the two types of work supported.

(h) When requesting approval for budget revisions, the recipient must use the same format for budget information that was used in the application, unless the Federal awarding agency indicates a letter of request suffices.

(i) Within 30 calendar days from the date of receipt of the request for budget revisions, the Federal awarding agency must review the request and notify the recipient whether the budget revisions have been approved. If the revision is still under consideration at the end of 30 calendar days, the Federal awarding agency must inform the recipient in writing of the date when the recipient may expect the decision.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75884, Dec. 19, 2014; 80 FR 54409, Sept. 10, 2015]

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§200.309   Period of performance.

A non-Federal entity may charge to the Federal award only allowable costs incurred during the period of performance (except as described in §200.461 Publication and printing costs) and any costs incurred before the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity made the Federal award that were authorized by the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75884, Dec. 19, 2014]

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Property Standards

§200.310   Insurance coverage.

The non-Federal entity must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired or improved with Federal funds as provided to property owned by the non-Federal entity. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the Federal award.

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§200.311   Real property.

(a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real property acquired or improved under a Federal award will vest upon acquisition in the non-Federal entity.

(b) Use. Except as otherwise provided by Federal statutes or by the Federal awarding agency, real property will be used for the originally authorized purpose as long as needed for that purpose, during which time the non-Federal entity must not dispose of or encumber its title or other interests.

(c) Disposition. When real property is no longer needed for the originally authorized purpose, the non-Federal entity must obtain disposition instructions from the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity. The instructions must provide for one of the following alternatives:

(1) Retain title after compensating the Federal awarding agency. The amount paid to the Federal awarding agency will be computed by applying the Federal awarding agency's percentage of participation in the cost of the original purchase (and costs of any improvements) to the fair market value of the property. However, in those situations where the non-Federal entity is disposing of real property acquired or improved with a Federal award and acquiring replacement real property under the same Federal award, the net proceeds from the disposition may be used as an offset to the cost of the replacement property.

(2) Sell the property and compensate the Federal awarding agency. The amount due to the Federal awarding agency will be calculated by applying the Federal awarding agency's percentage of participation in the cost of the original purchase (and cost of any improvements) to the proceeds of the sale after deduction of any actual and reasonable selling and fixing-up expenses. If the Federal award has not been closed out, the net proceeds from sale may be offset against the original cost of the property. When the non-Federal entity is directed to sell property, sales procedures must be followed that provide for competition to the extent practicable and result in the highest possible return.

(3) Transfer title to the Federal awarding agency or to a third party designated/approved by the Federal awarding agency. The non-Federal entity is entitled to be paid an amount calculated by applying the non-Federal entity's percentage of participation in the purchase of the real property (and cost of any improvements) to the current fair market value of the property.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75884, Dec. 19, 2014]

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§200.312   Federally-owned and exempt property.

(a) Title to federally-owned property remains vested in the Federal Government. The non-Federal entity must submit annually an inventory listing of federally-owned property in its custody to the Federal awarding agency. Upon completion of the Federal award or when the property is no longer needed, the non-Federal entity must report the property to the Federal awarding agency for further Federal agency utilization.

(b) If the Federal awarding agency has no further need for the property, it must declare the property excess and report it for disposal to the appropriate Federal disposal authority, unless the Federal awarding agency has statutory authority to dispose of the property by alternative methods (e.g., the authority provided by the Federal Technology Transfer Act (15 U.S.C. 3710 (i)) to donate research equipment to educational and non-profit organizations in accordance with Executive Order 12999, “Educational Technology: Ensuring Opportunity for All Children in the Next Century.”). The Federal awarding agency must issue appropriate instructions to the non-Federal entity.

(c) Exempt federally-owned property means property acquired under a Federal award where the Federal awarding agency has chosen to vest title to the property to the non-Federal entity without further obligation to the Federal Government, based upon the explicit terms and conditions of the Federal award. The Federal awarding agency may exercise this option when statutory authority exists. Absent statutory authority and specific terms and conditions of the Federal award, title to exempt federally-owned property acquired under the Federal award remains with the Federal Government.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75884, Dec. 19, 2014]

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§200.313   Equipment.

See also §200.439 Equipment and other capital expenditures.

(a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to equipment acquired under a Federal award will vest upon acquisition in the non-Federal entity. Unless a statute specifically authorizes the Federal agency to vest title in the non-Federal entity without further obligation to the Federal Government, and the Federal agency elects to do so, the title must be a conditional title. Title must vest in the non-Federal entity subject to the following conditions:

(1) Use the equipment for the authorized purposes of the project during the period of performance, or until the property is no longer needed for the purposes of the project.

(2) Not encumber the property without approval of the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity.

(3) Use and dispose of the property in accordance with paragraphs (b), (c) and (e) of this section.

(b) A state must use, manage and dispose of equipment acquired under a Federal award by the state in accordance with state laws and procedures. Other non-Federal entities must follow paragraphs (c) through (e) of this section.

(c) Use. (1) Equipment must be used by the non-Federal entity in the program or project for which it was acquired as long as needed, whether or not the project or program continues to be supported by the Federal award, and the non-Federal entity must not encumber the property without prior approval of the Federal awarding agency. When no longer needed for the original program or project, the equipment may be used in other activities supported by the Federal awarding agency, in the following order of priority:

(i) Activities under a Federal award from the Federal awarding agency which funded the original program or project, then

(ii) Activities under Federal awards from other Federal awarding agencies. This includes consolidated equipment for information technology systems.

(2) During the time that equipment is used on the project or program for which it was acquired, the non-Federal entity must also make equipment available for use on other projects or programs currently or previously supported by the Federal Government, provided that such use will not interfere with the work on the projects or program for which it was originally acquired. First preference for other use must be given to other programs or projects supported by Federal awarding agency that financed the equipment and second preference must be given to programs or projects under Federal awards from other Federal awarding agencies. Use for non-federally-funded programs or projects is also permissible. User fees should be considered if appropriate.

(3) Notwithstanding the encouragement in §200.307 Program income to earn program income, the non-Federal entity must not use equipment acquired with the Federal award to provide services for a fee that is less than private companies charge for equivalent services unless specifically authorized by Federal statute for as long as the Federal Government retains an interest in the equipment.

(4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the non-Federal entity may use the equipment to be replaced as a trade-in or sell the property and use the proceeds to offset the cost of the replacement property.

(d) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether acquired in whole or in part under a Federal award, until disposition takes place will, as a minimum, meet the following requirements:

(1) Property records must be maintained that include a description of the property, a serial number or other identification number, the source of funding for the property (including the FAIN), who holds title, the acquisition date, and cost of the property, percentage of Federal participation in the project costs for the Federal award under which the property was acquired, the location, use and condition of the property, and any ultimate disposition data including the date of disposal and sale price of the property.

(2) A physical inventory of the property must be taken and the results reconciled with the property records at least once every two years.

(3) A control system must be developed to ensure adequate safeguards to prevent loss, damage, or theft of the property. Any loss, damage, or theft must be investigated.

(4) Adequate maintenance procedures must be developed to keep the property in good condition.

(5) If the non-Federal entity is authorized or required to sell the property, proper sales procedures must be established to ensure the highest possible return.

(e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a Federal award is no longer needed for the original project or program or for other activities currently or previously supported by a Federal awarding agency, except as otherwise provided in Federal statutes, regulations, or Federal awarding agency disposition instructions, the non-Federal entity must request disposition instructions from the Federal awarding agency if required by the terms and conditions of the Federal award. Disposition of the equipment will be made as follows, in accordance with Federal awarding agency disposition instructions:

(1) Items of equipment with a current per unit fair market value of $5,000 or less may be retained, sold or otherwise disposed of with no further obligation to the Federal awarding agency.

(2) Except as provided in §200.312 Federally-owned and exempt property, paragraph (b), or if the Federal awarding agency fails to provide requested disposition instructions within 120 days, items of equipment with a current per-unit fair-market value in excess of $5,000 may be retained by the non-Federal entity or sold. The Federal awarding agency is entitled to an amount calculated by multiplying the current market value or proceeds from sale by the Federal awarding agency's percentage of participation in the cost of the original purchase. If the equipment is sold, the Federal awarding agency may permit the non-Federal entity to deduct and retain from the Federal share $500 or ten percent of the proceeds, whichever is less, for its selling and handling expenses.

(3) The non-Federal entity may transfer title to the property to the Federal Government or to an eligible third party provided that, in such cases, the non-Federal entity must be entitled to compensation for its attributable percentage of the current fair market value of the property.

(4) In cases where a non-Federal entity fails to take appropriate disposition actions, the Federal awarding agency may direct the non-Federal entity to take disposition actions.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75884, Dec. 19, 2014]

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§200.314   Supplies.

See also §200.453 Materials and supplies costs, including costs of computing devices.

(a) Title to supplies will vest in the non-Federal entity upon acquisition. If there is a residual inventory of unused supplies exceeding $5,000 in total aggregate value upon termination or completion of the project or program and the supplies are not needed for any other Federal award, the non-Federal entity must retain the supplies for use on other activities or sell them, but must, in either case, compensate the Federal Government for its share. The amount of compensation must be computed in the same manner as for equipment. See §200.313 Equipment, paragraph (e)(2) for the calculation methodology.

(b) As long as the Federal Government retains an interest in the supplies, the non-Federal entity must not use supplies acquired under a Federal award to provide services to other organizations for a fee that is less than private companies charge for equivalent services, unless specifically authorized by Federal statute.

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§200.315   Intangible property.

(a) Title to intangible property (see §200.59 Intangible property) acquired under a Federal award vests upon acquisition in the non-Federal entity. The non-Federal entity must use that property for the originally-authorized purpose, and must not encumber the property without approval of the Federal awarding agency. When no longer needed for the originally authorized purpose, disposition of the intangible property must occur in accordance with the provisions in §200.313 Equipment paragraph (e).

(b) The non-Federal entity may copyright any work that is subject to copyright and was developed, or for which ownership was acquired, under a Federal award. The Federal awarding agency reserves a royalty-free, nonexclusive and irrevocable right to reproduce, publish, or otherwise use the work for Federal purposes, and to authorize others to do so.

(c) The non-Federal entity is subject to applicable regulations governing patents and inventions, including governmentwide regulations issued by the Department of Commerce at 37 CFR Part 401, “Rights to Inventions Made by Nonprofit Organizations and Small Business Firms Under Government Awards, Contracts and Cooperative Agreements.”

(d) The Federal Government has the right to:

(1) Obtain, reproduce, publish, or otherwise use the data produced under a Federal award; and

(2) Authorize others to receive, reproduce, publish, or otherwise use such data for Federal purposes.

(e) Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

(1) In response to a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request for research data relating to published research findings produced under a Federal award that were used by the Federal Government in developing an agency action that has the force and effect of law, the Federal awarding agency must request, and the non-Federal entity must provide, within a reasonable time, the research data so that they can be made available to the public through the procedures established under the FOIA. If the Federal awarding agency obtains the research data solely in response to a FOIA request, the Federal awarding agency may charge the requester a reasonable fee equaling the full incremental cost of obtaining the research data. This fee should reflect costs incurred by the Federal agency and the non-Federal entity. This fee is in addition to any fees the Federal awarding agency may assess under the FOIA (5 U.S.C. 552(a)(4)(A)).

(2) Published research findings means when:

(i) Research findings are published in a peer-reviewed scientific or technical journal; or

(ii) A Federal agency publicly and officially cites the research findings in support of an agency action that has the force and effect of law. “Used by the Federal Government in developing an agency action that has the force and effect of law” is defined as when an agency publicly and officially cites the research findings in support of an agency action that has the force and effect of law.

(3) Research data means the recorded factual material commonly accepted in the scientific community as necessary to validate research findings, but not any of the following: preliminary analyses, drafts of scientific papers, plans for future research, peer reviews, or communications with colleagues. This “recorded” material excludes physical objects (e.g., laboratory samples). Research data also do not include:

(i) Trade secrets, commercial information, materials necessary to be held confidential by a researcher until they are published, or similar information which is protected under law; and

(ii) Personnel and medical information and similar information the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, such as information that could be used to identify a particular person in a research study.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75884, Dec. 19, 2014]

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§200.316   Property trust relationship.

Real property, equipment, and intangible property, that are acquired or improved with a Federal award must be held in trust by the non-Federal entity as trustee for the beneficiaries of the project or program under which the property was acquired or improved. The Federal awarding agency may require the non-Federal entity to record liens or other appropriate notices of record to indicate that personal or real property has been acquired or improved with a Federal award and that use and disposition conditions apply to the property.

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Procurement Standards

§200.317   Procurements by states.

When procuring property and services under a Federal award, a state must follow the same policies and procedures it uses for procurements from its non-Federal funds. The state will comply with §200.322 Procurement of recovered materials and ensure that every purchase order or other contract includes any clauses required by section §200.326 Contract provisions. All other non-Federal entities, including subrecipients of a state, will follow §§200.318 General procurement standards through 200.326 Contract provisions.

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§200.318   General procurement standards.

(a) The non-Federal entity must use its own documented procurement procedures which reflect applicable State, local, and tribal laws and regulations, provided that the procurements conform to applicable Federal law and the standards identified in this part.

(b) Non-Federal entities must maintain oversight to ensure that contractors perform in accordance with the terms, conditions, and specifications of their contracts or purchase orders.

(c)(1) The non-Federal entity must maintain written standards of conduct covering conflicts of interest and governing the actions of its employees engaged in the selection, award and administration of contracts. No employee, officer, or agent may participate in the selection, award, or administration of a contract supported by a Federal award if he or she has a real or apparent conflict of interest. Such a conflict of interest would arise when the employee, officer, or agent, any member of his or her immediate family, his or her partner, or an organization which employs or is about to employ any of the parties indicated herein, has a financial or other interest in or a tangible personal benefit from a firm considered for a contract. The officers, employees, and agents of the non-Federal entity may neither solicit nor accept gratuities, favors, or anything of monetary value from contractors or parties to subcontracts. However, non-Federal entities may set standards for situations in which the financial interest is not substantial or the gift is an unsolicited item of nominal value. The standards of conduct must provide for disciplinary actions to be applied for violations of such standards by officers, employees, or agents of the non-Federal entity.

(2) If the non-Federal entity has a parent, affiliate, or subsidiary organization that is not a state, local government, or Indian tribe, the non-Federal entity must also maintain written standards of conduct covering organizational conflicts of interest. Organizational conflicts of interest means that because of relationships with a parent company, affiliate, or subsidiary organization, the non-Federal entity is unable or appears to be unable to be impartial in conducting a procurement action involving a related organization.

(d) The non-Federal entity's procedures must avoid acquisition of unnecessary or duplicative items. Consideration should be given to consolidating or breaking out procurements to obtain a more economical purchase. Where appropriate, an analysis will be made of lease versus purchase alternatives, and any other appropriate analysis to determine the most economical approach.

(e) To foster greater economy and efficiency, and in accordance with efforts to promote cost-effective use of shared services across the Federal Government, the non-Federal entity is encouraged to enter into state and local intergovernmental agreements or inter-entity agreements where appropriate for procurement or use of common or shared goods and services.

(f) The non-Federal entity is encouraged to use Federal excess and surplus property in lieu of purchasing new equipment and property whenever such use is feasible and reduces project costs.

(g) The non-Federal entity is encouraged to use value engineering clauses in contracts for construction projects of sufficient size to offer reasonable opportunities for cost reductions. Value engineering is a systematic and creative analysis of each contract item or task to ensure that its essential function is provided at the overall lower cost.

(h) The non-Federal entity must award contracts only to responsible contractors possessing the ability to perform successfully under the terms and conditions of a proposed procurement. Consideration will be given to such matters as contractor integrity, compliance with public policy, record of past performance, and financial and technical resources. See also §200.213 Suspension and debarment.

(i) The non-Federal entity must maintain records sufficient to detail the history of procurement. These records will include, but are not necessarily limited to the following: rationale for the method of procurement, selection of contract type, contractor selection or rejection, and the basis for the contract price.

(j)(1) The non-Federal entity may use a time and materials type contract only after a determination that no other contract is suitable and if the contract includes a ceiling price that the contractor exceeds at its own risk. Time and materials type contract means a contract whose cost to a non-Federal entity is the sum of:

(i) The actual cost of materials; and

(ii) Direct labor hours charged at fixed hourly rates that reflect wages, general and administrative expenses, and profit.

(2) Since this formula generates an open-ended contract price, a time-and-materials contract provides no positive profit incentive to the contractor for cost control or labor efficiency. Therefore, each contract must set a ceiling price that the contractor exceeds at its own risk. Further, the non-Federal entity awarding such a contract must assert a high degree of oversight in order to obtain reasonable assurance that the contractor is using efficient methods and effective cost controls.

(k) The non-Federal entity alone must be responsible, in accordance with good administrative practice and sound business judgment, for the settlement of all contractual and administrative issues arising out of procurements. These issues include, but are not limited to, source evaluation, protests, disputes, and claims. These standards do not relieve the non-Federal entity of any contractual responsibilities under its contracts. The Federal awarding agency will not substitute its judgment for that of the non-Federal entity unless the matter is primarily a Federal concern. Violations of law will be referred to the local, state, or Federal authority having proper jurisdiction.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75885, Dec. 19, 2014; 80 FR 43309, July 22, 2015]

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§200.319   Competition.

(a) All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner providing full and open competition consistent with the standards of this section. In order to ensure objective contractor performance and eliminate unfair competitive advantage, contractors that develop or draft specifications, requirements, statements of work, or invitations for bids or requests for proposals must be excluded from competing for such procurements. Some of the situations considered to be restrictive of competition include but are not limited to:

(1) Placing unreasonable requirements on firms in order for them to qualify to do business;

(2) Requiring unnecessary experience and excessive bonding;

(3) Noncompetitive pricing practices between firms or between affiliated companies;

(4) Noncompetitive contracts to consultants that are on retainer contracts;

(5) Organizational conflicts of interest;

(6) Specifying only a “brand name” product instead of allowing “an equal” product to be offered and describing the performance or other relevant requirements of the procurement; and

(7) Any arbitrary action in the procurement process.

(b) The non-Federal entity must conduct procurements in a manner that prohibits the use of statutorily or administratively imposed state, local, or tribal geographical preferences in the evaluation of bids or proposals, except in those cases where applicable Federal statutes expressly mandate or encourage geographic preference. Nothing in this section preempts state licensing laws. When contracting for architectural and engineering (A/E) services, geographic location may be a selection criterion provided its application leaves an appropriate number of qualified firms, given the nature and size of the project, to compete for the contract.

(c) The non-Federal entity must have written procedures for procurement transactions. These procedures must ensure that all solicitations:

(1) Incorporate a clear and accurate description of the technical requirements for the material, product, or service to be procured. Such description must not, in competitive procurements, contain features which unduly restrict competition. The description may include a statement of the qualitative nature of the material, product or service to be procured and, when necessary, must set forth those minimum essential characteristics and standards to which it must conform if it is to satisfy its intended use. Detailed product specifications should be avoided if at all possible. When it is impractical or uneconomical to make a clear and accurate description of the technical requirements, a “brand name or equivalent” description may be used as a means to define the performance or other salient requirements of procurement. The specific features of the named brand which must be met by offers must be clearly stated; and

(2) Identify all requirements which the offerors must fulfill and all other factors to be used in evaluating bids or proposals.

(d) The non-Federal entity must ensure that all prequalified lists of persons, firms, or products which are used in acquiring goods and services are current and include enough qualified sources to ensure maximum open and free competition. Also, the non-Federal entity must not preclude potential bidders from qualifying during the solicitation period.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75885, Dec. 19, 2014]

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§200.320   Methods of procurement to be followed.

The non-Federal entity must use one of the following methods of procurement.

(a) Procurement by micro-purchases. Procurement by micro-purchase is the acquisition of supplies or services, the aggregate dollar amount of which does not exceed the micro-purchase threshold (§200.67 Micro-purchase). To the extent practicable, the non-Federal entity must distribute micro-purchases equitably among qualified suppliers. Micro-purchases may be awarded without soliciting competitive quotations if the non-Federal entity considers the price to be reasonable.

(b) Procurement by small purchase procedures. Small purchase procedures are those relatively simple and informal procurement methods for securing services, supplies, or other property that do not cost more than the Simplified Acquisition Threshold. If small purchase procedures are used, price or rate quotations must be obtained from an adequate number of qualified sources.

(c) Procurement by sealed bids (formal advertising). Bids are publicly solicited and a firm fixed price contract (lump sum or unit price) is awarded to the responsible bidder whose bid, conforming with all the material terms and conditions of the invitation for bids, is the lowest in price. The sealed bid method is the preferred method for procuring construction, if the conditions in paragraph (c)(1) of this section apply.

(1) In order for sealed bidding to be feasible, the following conditions should be present:

(i) A complete, adequate, and realistic specification or purchase description is available;

(ii) Two or more responsible bidders are willing and able to compete effectively for the business; and

(iii) The procurement lends itself to a firm fixed price contract and the selection of the successful bidder can be made principally on the basis of price.

(2) If sealed bids are used, the following requirements apply:

(i) Bids must be solicited from an adequate number of known suppliers, providing them sufficient response time prior to the date set for opening the bids, for local, and tribal governments, the invitation for bids must be publicly advertised;

(ii) The invitation for bids, which will include any specifications and pertinent attachments, must define the items or services in order for the bidder to properly respond;

(iii) All bids will be opened at the time and place prescribed in the invitation for bids, and for local and tribal governments, the bids must be opened publicly;

(iv) A firm fixed price contract award will be made in writing to the lowest responsive and responsible bidder. Where specified in bidding documents, factors such as discounts, transportation cost, and life cycle costs must be considered in determining which bid is lowest. Payment discounts will only be used to determine the low bid when prior experience indicates that such discounts are usually taken advantage of; and

(v) Any or all bids may be rejected if there is a sound documented reason.

(d) Procurement by competitive proposals. The technique of competitive proposals is normally conducted with more than one source submitting an offer, and either a fixed price or cost-reimbursement type contract is awarded. It is generally used when conditions are not appropriate for the use of sealed bids. If this method is used, the following requirements apply:

(1) Requests for proposals must be publicized and identify all evaluation factors and their relative importance. Any response to publicized requests for proposals must be considered to the maximum extent practical;

(2) Proposals must be solicited from an adequate number of qualified sources;

(3) The non-Federal entity must have a written method for conducting technical evaluations of the proposals received and for selecting recipients;

(4) Contracts must be awarded to the responsible firm whose proposal is most advantageous to the program, with price and other factors considered; and

(5) The non-Federal entity may use competitive proposal procedures for qualifications-based procurement of architectural/engineering (A/E) professional services whereby competitors' qualifications are evaluated and the most qualified competitor is selected, subject to negotiation of fair and reasonable compensation. The method, where price is not used as a selection factor, can only be used in procurement of A/E professional services. It cannot be used to purchase other types of services though A/E firms are a potential source to perform the proposed effort.

(e) [Reserved]

(f) Procurement by noncompetitive proposals. Procurement by noncompetitive proposals is procurement through solicitation of a proposal from only one source and may be used only when one or more of the following circumstances apply:

(1) The item is available only from a single source;

(2) The public exigency or emergency for the requirement will not permit a delay resulting from competitive solicitation;

(3) The Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity expressly authorizes noncompetitive proposals in response to a written request from the non-Federal entity; or

(4) After solicitation of a number of sources, competition is determined inadequate.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75885, Dec. 19, 2014; 80 FR 54409, Sept. 10, 2015]

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§200.321   Contracting with small and minority businesses, women's business enterprises, and labor surplus area firms.

(a) The non-Federal entity must take all necessary affirmative steps to assure that minority businesses, women's business enterprises, and labor surplus area firms are used when possible.

(b) Affirmative steps must include:

(1) Placing qualified small and minority businesses and women's business enterprises on solicitation lists;

(2) Assuring that small and minority businesses, and women's business enterprises are solicited whenever they are potential sources;

(3) Dividing total requirements, when economically feasible, into smaller tasks or quantities to permit maximum participation by small and minority businesses, and women's business enterprises;

(4) Establishing delivery schedules, where the requirement permits, which encourage participation by small and minority businesses, and women's business enterprises;

(5) Using the services and assistance, as appropriate, of such organizations as the Small Business Administration and the Minority Business Development Agency of the Department of Commerce; and

(6) Requiring the prime contractor, if subcontracts are to be let, to take the affirmative steps listed in paragraphs (1) through (5) of this section.

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§200.322   Procurement of recovered materials.

A non-Federal entity that is a state agency or agency of a political subdivision of a state and its contractors must comply with section 6002 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The requirements of Section 6002 include procuring only items designated in guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) at 40 CFR part 247 that contain the highest percentage of recovered materials practicable, consistent with maintaining a satisfactory level of competition, where the purchase price of the item exceeds $10,000 or the value of the quantity acquired during the preceding fiscal year exceeded $10,000; procuring solid waste management services in a manner that maximizes energy and resource recovery; and establishing an affirmative procurement program for procurement of recovered materials identified in the EPA guidelines.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75885, Dec. 19, 2014]

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§200.323   Contract cost and price.

(a) The non-Federal entity must perform a cost or price analysis in connection with every procurement action in excess of the Simplified Acquisition Threshold including contract modifications. The method and degree of analysis is dependent on the facts surrounding the particular procurement situation, but as a starting point, the non-Federal entity must make independent estimates before receiving bids or proposals.

(b) The non-Federal entity must negotiate profit as a separate element of the price for each contract in which there is no price competition and in all cases where cost analysis is performed. To establish a fair and reasonable profit, consideration must be given to the complexity of the work to be performed, the risk borne by the contractor, the contractor's investment, the amount of subcontracting, the quality of its record of past performance, and industry profit rates in the surrounding geographical area for similar work.

(c) Costs or prices based on estimated costs for contracts under the Federal award are allowable only to the extent that costs incurred or cost estimates included in negotiated prices would be allowable for the non-Federal entity under Subpart E—Cost Principles of this part. The non-Federal entity may reference its own cost principles that comply with the Federal cost principles.

(d) The cost plus a percentage of cost and percentage of construction cost methods of contracting must not be used.

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§200.324   Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity review.

(a) The non-Federal entity must make available, upon request of the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity, technical specifications on proposed procurements where the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity believes such review is needed to ensure that the item or service specified is the one being proposed for acquisition. This review generally will take place prior to the time the specification is incorporated into a solicitation document. However, if the non-Federal entity desires to have the review accomplished after a solicitation has been developed, the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity may still review the specifications, with such review usually limited to the technical aspects of the proposed purchase.

(b) The non-Federal entity must make available upon request, for the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity pre-procurement review, procurement documents, such as requests for proposals or invitations for bids, or independent cost estimates, when:

(1) The non-Federal entity's procurement procedures or operation fails to comply with the procurement standards in this part;

(2) The procurement is expected to exceed the Simplified Acquisition Threshold and is to be awarded without competition or only one bid or offer is received in response to a solicitation;

(3) The procurement, which is expected to exceed the Simplified Acquisition Threshold, specifies a “brand name” product;

(4) The proposed contract is more than the Simplified Acquisition Threshold and is to be awarded to other than the apparent low bidder under a sealed bid procurement; or

(5) A proposed contract modification changes the scope of a contract or increases the contract amount by more than the Simplified Acquisition Threshold.

(c) The non-Federal entity is exempt from the pre-procurement review in paragraph (b) of this section if the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity determines that its procurement systems comply with the standards of this part.

(1) The non-Federal entity may request that its procurement system be reviewed by the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity to determine whether its system meets these standards in order for its system to be certified. Generally, these reviews must occur where there is continuous high-dollar funding, and third party contracts are awarded on a regular basis;

(2) The non-Federal entity may self-certify its procurement system. Such self-certification must not limit the Federal awarding agency's right to survey the system. Under a self-certification procedure, the Federal awarding agency may rely on written assurances from the non-Federal entity that it is complying with these standards. The non-Federal entity must cite specific policies, procedures, regulations, or standards as being in compliance with these requirements and have its system available for review.

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§200.325   Bonding requirements.

For construction or facility improvement contracts or subcontracts exceeding the Simplified Acquisition Threshold, the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity may accept the bonding policy and requirements of the non-Federal entity provided that the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity has made a determination that the Federal interest is adequately protected. If such a determination has not been made, the minimum requirements must be as follows:

(a) A bid guarantee from each bidder equivalent to five percent of the bid price. The “bid guarantee” must consist of a firm commitment such as a bid bond, certified check, or other negotiable instrument accompanying a bid as assurance that the bidder will, upon acceptance of the bid, execute such contractual documents as may be required within the time specified.

(b) A performance bond on the part of the contractor for 100 percent of the contract price. A “performance bond” is one executed in connection with a contract to secure fulfillment of all the contractor's obligations under such contract.

(c) A payment bond on the part of the contractor for 100 percent of the contract price. A “payment bond” is one executed in connection with a contract to assure payment as required by law of all persons supplying labor and material in the execution of the work provided for in the contract.

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§200.326   Contract provisions.

The non-Federal entity's contracts must contain the applicable provisions described in Appendix II to Part 200—Contract Provisions for non-Federal Entity Contracts Under Federal Awards.

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Performance and Financial Monitoring and Reporting

§200.327   Financial reporting.

Unless otherwise approved by OMB, the Federal awarding agency may solicit only the standard, OMB-approved governmentwide data elements for collection of financial information (at time of publication the Federal Financial Report or such future collections as may be approved by OMB and listed on the OMB Web site). This information must be collected with the frequency required by the terms and conditions of the Federal award, but no less frequently than annually nor more frequently than quarterly except in unusual circumstances, for example where more frequent reporting is necessary for the effective monitoring of the Federal award or could significantly affect program outcomes, and preferably in coordination with performance reporting.

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§200.328   Monitoring and reporting program performance.

(a) Monitoring by the non-Federal entity. The non-Federal entity is responsible for oversight of the operations of the Federal award supported activities. The non-Federal entity must monitor its activities under Federal awards to assure compliance with applicable Federal requirements and performance expectations are being achieved. Monitoring by the non-Federal entity must cover each program, function or activity. See also §200.331 Requirements for pass-through entities.

(b) Non-construction performance reports. The Federal awarding agency must use standard, OMB-approved data elements for collection of performance information (including performance progress reports, Research Performance Progress Report, or such future collections as may be approved by OMB and listed on the OMB Web site).

(1) The non-Federal entity must submit performance reports at the interval required by the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity to best inform improvements in program outcomes and productivity. Intervals must be no less frequent than annually nor more frequent than quarterly except in unusual circumstances, for example where more frequent reporting is necessary for the effective monitoring of the Federal award or could significantly affect program outcomes. Annual reports must be due 90 calendar days after the reporting period; quarterly or semiannual reports must be due 30 calendar days after the reporting period. Alternatively, the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity may require annual reports before the anniversary dates of multiple year Federal awards. The final performance report will be due 90 calendar days after the period of performance end date. If a justified request is submitted by a non-Federal entity, the Federal agency may extend the due date for any performance report.

(2) The non-Federal entity must submit performance reports using OMB-approved governmentwide standard information collections when providing performance information. As appropriate in accordance with above mentioned information collections, these reports will contain, for each Federal award, brief information on the following unless other collections are approved by OMB:

(i) A comparison of actual accomplishments to the objectives of the Federal award established for the period. Where the accomplishments of the Federal award can be quantified, a computation of the cost (for example, related to units of accomplishment) may be required if that information will be useful. Where performance trend data and analysis would be informative to the Federal awarding agency program, the Federal awarding agency should include this as a performance reporting requirement.

(ii) The reasons why established goals were not met, if appropriate.

(iii) Additional pertinent information including, when appropriate, analysis and explanation of cost overruns or high unit costs.

(c) Construction performance reports. For the most part, onsite technical inspections and certified percentage of completion data are relied on heavily by Federal awarding agencies and pass-through entities to monitor progress under Federal awards and subawards for construction. The Federal awarding agency may require additional performance reports only when considered necessary.

(d) Significant developments. Events may occur between the scheduled performance reporting dates that have significant impact upon the supported activity. In such cases, the non-Federal entity must inform the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity as soon as the following types of conditions become known:

(1) Problems, delays, or adverse conditions which will materially impair the ability to meet the objective of the Federal award. This disclosure must include a statement of the action taken, or contemplated, and any assistance needed to resolve the situation.

(2) Favorable developments which enable meeting time schedules and objectives sooner or at less cost than anticipated or producing more or different beneficial results than originally planned.

(e) The Federal awarding agency may make site visits as warranted by program needs.

(f) The Federal awarding agency may waive any performance report required by this part if not needed.

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§200.329   Reporting on real property.

The Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity must require a non-Federal entity to submit reports at least annually on the status of real property in which the Federal Government retains an interest, unless the Federal interest in the real property extends 15 years or longer. In those instances where the Federal interest attached is for a period of 15 years or more, the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity, at its option, may require the non-Federal entity to report at various multi-year frequencies (e.g., every two years or every three years, not to exceed a five-year reporting period; or a Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity may require annual reporting for the first three years of a Federal award and thereafter require reporting every five years).

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Subrecipient Monitoring and Management

§200.330   Subrecipient and contractor determinations.

The non-Federal entity may concurrently receive Federal awards as a recipient, a subrecipient, and a contractor, depending on the substance of its agreements with Federal awarding agencies and pass-through entities. Therefore, a pass-through entity must make case-by-case determinations whether each agreement it makes for the disbursement of Federal program funds casts the party receiving the funds in the role of a subrecipient or a contractor. The Federal awarding agency may supply and require recipients to comply with additional guidance to support these determinations provided such guidance does not conflict with this section.

(a) Subrecipients. A subaward is for the purpose of carrying out a portion of a Federal award and creates a Federal assistance relationship with the subrecipient. See §200.92 Subaward. Characteristics which support the classification of the non-Federal entity as a subrecipient include when the non-Federal entity:

(1) Determines who is eligible to receive what Federal assistance;

(2) Has its performance measured in relation to whether objectives of a Federal program were met;

(3) Has responsibility for programmatic decision making;

(4) Is responsible for adherence to applicable Federal program requirements specified in the Federal award; and

(5) In accordance with its agreement, uses the Federal funds to carry out a program for a public purpose specified in authorizing statute, as opposed to providing goods or services for the benefit of the pass-through entity.

(b) Contractors. A contract is for the purpose of obtaining goods and services for the non-Federal entity's own use and creates a procurement relationship with the contractor. See §200.22 Contract. Characteristics indicative of a procurement relationship between the non-Federal entity and a contractor are when the contractor:

(1) Provides the goods and services within normal business operations;

(2) Provides similar goods or services to many different purchasers;

(3) Normally operates in a competitive environment;

(4) Provides goods or services that are ancillary to the operation of the Federal program; and

(5) Is not subject to compliance requirements of the Federal program as a result of the agreement, though similar requirements may apply for other reasons.

(c) Use of judgment in making determination. In determining whether an agreement between a pass-through entity and another non-Federal entity casts the latter as a subrecipient or a contractor, the substance of the relationship is more important than the form of the agreement. All of the characteristics listed above may not be present in all cases, and the pass-through entity must use judgment in classifying each agreement as a subaward or a procurement contract.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 80 FR 54409, Sept. 10, 2015]

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§200.331   Requirements for pass-through entities.

All pass-through entities must:

(a) Ensure that every subaward is clearly identified to the subrecipient as a subaward and includes the following information at the time of the subaward and if any of these data elements change, include the changes in subsequent subaward modification. When some of this information is not available, the pass-through entity must provide the best information available to describe the Federal award and subaward. Required information includes:

(1) Federal Award Identification.

(i) Subrecipient name (which must match the name associated with its unique entity identifier);

(ii) Subrecipient's unique entity identifier;

(iii) Federal Award Identification Number (FAIN);

(iv) Federal Award Date (see §200.39 Federal award date) of award to the recipient by the Federal agency;

(v) Subaward Period of Performance Start and End Date;

(vi) Amount of Federal Funds Obligated by this action by the pass-through entity to the subrecipient;

(vii) Total Amount of Federal Funds Obligated to the subrecipient by the pass-through entity including the current obligation;

(viii) Total Amount of the Federal Award committed to the subrecipient by the pass-through entity;

(ix) Federal award project description, as required to be responsive to the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA);

(x) Name of Federal awarding agency, pass-through entity, and contact information for awarding official of the Pass-through entity;

(xi) CFDA Number and Name; the pass-through entity must identify the dollar amount made available under each Federal award and the CFDA number at time of disbursement;

(xii) Identification of whether the award is R&D; and

(xiii) Indirect cost rate for the Federal award (including if the de minimis rate is charged per §200.414 Indirect (F&A) costs).

(2) All requirements imposed by the pass-through entity on the subrecipient so that the Federal award is used in accordance with Federal statutes, regulations and the terms and conditions of the Federal award;

(3) Any additional requirements that the pass-through entity imposes on the subrecipient in order for the pass-through entity to meet its own responsibility to the Federal awarding agency including identification of any required financial and performance reports;

(4) An approved federally recognized indirect cost rate negotiated between the subrecipient and the Federal Government or, if no such rate exists, either a rate negotiated between the pass-through entity and the subrecipient (in compliance with this part), or a de minimis indirect cost rate as defined in §200.414 Indirect (F&A) costs, paragraph (f);

(5) A requirement that the subrecipient permit the pass-through entity and auditors to have access to the subrecipient's records and financial statements as necessary for the pass-through entity to meet the requirements of this part; and

(6) Appropriate terms and conditions concerning closeout of the subaward.

(b) Evaluate each subrecipient's risk of noncompliance with Federal statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of the subaward for purposes of determining the appropriate subrecipient monitoring described in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section, which may include consideration of such factors as:

(1) The subrecipient's prior experience with the same or similar subawards;

(2) The results of previous audits including whether or not the subrecipient receives a Single Audit in accordance with Subpart F—Audit Requirements of this part, and the extent to which the same or similar subaward has been audited as a major program;

(3) Whether the subrecipient has new personnel or new or substantially changed systems; and

(4) The extent and results of Federal awarding agency monitoring (e.g., if the subrecipient also receives Federal awards directly from a Federal awarding agency).

(c) Consider imposing specific subaward conditions upon a subrecipient if appropriate as described in §200.207 Specific conditions.

(d) Monitor the activities of the subrecipient as necessary to ensure that the subaward is used for authorized purposes, in compliance with Federal statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of the subaward; and that subaward performance goals are achieved. Pass-through entity monitoring of the subrecipient must include:

(1) Reviewing financial and performance reports required by the pass-through entity.

(2) Following-up and ensuring that the subrecipient takes timely and appropriate action on all deficiencies pertaining to the Federal award provided to the subrecipient from the pass-through entity detected through audits, on-site reviews, and other means.

(3) Issuing a management decision for audit findings pertaining to the Federal award provided to the subrecipient from the pass-through entity as required by §200.521 Management decision.

(e) Depending upon the pass-through entity's assessment of risk posed by the subrecipient (as described in paragraph (b) of this section), the following monitoring tools may be useful for the pass-through entity to ensure proper accountability and compliance with program requirements and achievement of performance goals:

(1) Providing subrecipients with training and technical assistance on program-related matters; and

(2) Performing on-site reviews of the subrecipient's program operations;

(3) Arranging for agreed-upon-procedures engagements as described in §200.425 Audit services.

(f) Verify that every subrecipient is audited as required by Subpart F—Audit Requirements of this part when it is expected that the subrecipient's Federal awards expended during the respective fiscal year equaled or exceeded the threshold set forth in §200.501 Audit requirements.

(g) Consider whether the results of the subrecipient's audits, on-site reviews, or other monitoring indicate conditions that necessitate adjustments to the pass-through entity's own records.

(h) Consider taking enforcement action against noncompliant subrecipients as described in §200.338 Remedies for noncompliance of this part and in program regulations.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75885, Dec. 19, 2014; 80 FR 54409, Sept. 10, 2015]

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§200.332   Fixed amount subawards.

With prior written approval from the Federal awarding agency, a pass-through entity may provide subawards based on fixed amounts up to the Simplified Acquisition Threshold, provided that the subawards meet the requirements for fixed amount awards in §200.201 Use of grant agreements (including fixed amount awards), cooperative agreements, and contracts.

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Record Retention and Access

§200.333   Retention requirements for records.

Financial records, supporting documents, statistical records, and all other non-Federal entity records pertinent to a Federal award must be retained for a period of three years from the date of submission of the final expenditure report or, for Federal awards that are renewed quarterly or annually, from the date of the submission of the quarterly or annual financial report, respectively, as reported to the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity in the case of a subrecipient. Federal awarding agencies and pass-through entities must not impose any other record retention requirements upon non-Federal entities. The only exceptions are the following:

(a) If any litigation, claim, or audit is started before the expiration of the 3-year period, the records must be retained until all litigation, claims, or audit findings involving the records have been resolved and final action taken.

(b) When the non-Federal entity is notified in writing by the Federal awarding agency, cognizant agency for audit, oversight agency for audit, cognizant agency for indirect costs, or pass-through entity to extend the retention period.

(c) Records for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds must be retained for 3 years after final disposition.

(d) When records are transferred to or maintained by the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity, the 3-year retention requirement is not applicable to the non-Federal entity.

(e) Records for program income transactions after the period of performance. In some cases recipients must report program income after the period of performance. Where there is such a requirement, the retention period for the records pertaining to the earning of the program income starts from the end of the non-Federal entity's fiscal year in which the program income is earned.

(f) Indirect cost rate proposals and cost allocations plans. This paragraph applies to the following types of documents and their supporting records: indirect cost rate computations or proposals, cost allocation plans, and any similar accounting computations of the rate at which a particular group of costs is chargeable (such as computer usage chargeback rates or composite fringe benefit rates).

(1) If submitted for negotiation. If the proposal, plan, or other computation is required to be submitted to the Federal Government (or to the pass-through entity) to form the basis for negotiation of the rate, then the 3-year retention period for its supporting records starts from the date of such submission.

(2) If not submitted for negotiation. If the proposal, plan, or other computation is not required to be submitted to the Federal Government (or to the pass-through entity) for negotiation purposes, then the 3-year retention period for the proposal, plan, or computation and its supporting records starts from the end of the fiscal year (or other accounting period) covered by the proposal, plan, or other computation.

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§200.334   Requests for transfer of records.

The Federal awarding agency must request transfer of certain records to its custody from the non-Federal entity when it determines that the records possess long-term retention value. However, in order to avoid duplicate recordkeeping, the Federal awarding agency may make arrangements for the non-Federal entity to retain any records that are continuously needed for joint use.

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§200.335   Methods for collection, transmission and storage of information.

In accordance with the May 2013 Executive Order on Making Open and Machine Readable the New Default for Government Information, the Federal awarding agency and the non-Federal entity should, whenever practicable, collect, transmit, and store Federal award-related information in open and machine readable formats rather than in closed formats or on paper. The Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity must always provide or accept paper versions of Federal award-related information to and from the non-Federal entity upon request. If paper copies are submitted, the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity must not require more than an original and two copies. When original records are electronic and cannot be altered, there is no need to create and retain paper copies. When original records are paper, electronic versions may be substituted through the use of duplication or other forms of electronic media provided that they are subject to periodic quality control reviews, provide reasonable safeguards against alteration, and remain readable.

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§200.336   Access to records.

(a) Records of non-Federal entities. The Federal awarding agency, Inspectors General, the Comptroller General of the United States, and the pass-through entity, or any of their authorized representatives, must have the right of access to any documents, papers, or other records of the non-Federal entity which are pertinent to the Federal award, in order to make audits, examinations, excerpts, and transcripts. The right also includes timely and reasonable access to the non-Federal entity's personnel for the purpose of interview and discussion related to such documents.

(b) Only under extraordinary and rare circumstances would such access include review of the true name of victims of a crime. Routine monitoring cannot be considered extraordinary and rare circumstances that would necessitate access to this information. When access to the true name of victims of a crime is necessary, appropriate steps to protect this sensitive information must be taken by both the non-Federal entity and the Federal awarding agency. Any such access, other than under a court order or subpoena pursuant to a bona fide confidential investigation, must be approved by the head of the Federal awarding agency or delegate.

(c) Expiration of right of access. The rights of access in this section are not limited to the required retention period but last as long as the records are retained. Federal awarding agencies and pass-through entities must not impose any other access requirements upon non-Federal entities.

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§200.337   Restrictions on public access to records.

No Federal awarding agency may place restrictions on the non-Federal entity that limit public access to the records of the non-Federal entity pertinent to a Federal award, except for protected personally identifiable information (PII) or when the Federal awarding agency can demonstrate that such records will be kept confidential and would have been exempted from disclosure pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552) or controlled unclassified information pursuant to Executive Order 13556 if the records had belonged to the Federal awarding agency. The Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552) (FOIA) does not apply to those records that remain under a non-Federal entity's control except as required under §200.315 Intangible property. Unless required by Federal, state, local, and tribal statute, non-Federal entities are not required to permit public access to their records. The non-Federal entity's records provided to a Federal agency generally will be subject to FOIA and applicable exemptions.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75885, Dec. 19, 2014]

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Remedies for Noncompliance

§200.338   Remedies for noncompliance.

If a non-Federal entity fails to comply with Federal statutes, regulations or the terms and conditions of a Federal award, the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity may impose additional conditions, as described in §200.207 Specific conditions. If the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity determines that noncompliance cannot be remedied by imposing additional conditions, the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity may take one or more of the following actions, as appropriate in the circumstances:

(a) Temporarily withhold cash payments pending correction of the deficiency by the non-Federal entity or more severe enforcement action by the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity.

(b) Disallow (that is, deny both use of funds and any applicable matching credit for) all or part of the cost of the activity or action not in compliance.

(c) Wholly or partly suspend or terminate the Federal award.

(d) Initiate suspension or debarment proceedings as authorized under 2 CFR part 180 and Federal awarding agency regulations (or in the case of a pass-through entity, recommend such a proceeding be initiated by a Federal awarding agency).

(e) Withhold further Federal awards for the project or program.

(f) Take other remedies that may be legally available.

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§200.339   Termination.

(a) The Federal award may be terminated in whole or in part as follows:

(1) By the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity, if a non-Federal entity fails to comply with the terms and conditions of a Federal award;

(2) By the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity for cause;

(3) By the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity with the consent of the non-Federal entity, in which case the two parties must agree upon the termination conditions, including the effective date and, in the case of partial termination, the portion to be terminated; or

(4) By the non-Federal entity upon sending to the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity written notification setting forth the reasons for such termination, the effective date, and, in the case of partial termination, the portion to be terminated. However, if the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity determines in the case of partial termination that the reduced or modified portion of the Federal award or subaward will not accomplish the purposes for which the Federal award was made, the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity may terminate the Federal award in its entirety.

(b) When a Federal awarding agency terminates a Federal award prior to the end of the period of performance due to the non-Federal entity's material failure to comply with the Federal award terms and conditions, the Federal awarding agency must report the termination to the OMB-designated integrity and performance system accessible through SAM (currently FAPIIS).

(1) The information required under paragraph (b) of this section is not to be reported to designated integrity and performance system until the non-Federal entity either—

(i) Has exhausted its opportunities to object or challenge the decision, see §200.341 Opportunities to object, hearings and appeals; or

(ii) Has not, within 30 calendar days after being notified of the termination, informed the Federal awarding agency that it intends to appeal the Federal awarding agency's decision to terminate.

(2) If a Federal awarding agency, after entering information into the designated integrity and performance system about a termination, subsequently:

(i) Learns that any of that information is erroneous, the Federal awarding agency must correct the information in the system within three business days;

(ii) Obtains an update to that information that could be helpful to other Federal awarding agencies, the Federal awarding agency is strongly encouraged to amend the information in the system to incorporate the update in a timely way.

(3) Federal awarding agencies, shall not post any information that will be made publicly available in the non-public segment of designated integrity and performance system that is covered by a disclosure exemption under the Freedom of Information Act. If the non-Federal entity asserts within seven calendar days to the Federal awarding agency who posted the information, that some of the information made publicly available is covered by a disclosure exemption under the Freedom of Information Act, the Federal awarding agency who posted the information must remove the posting within seven calendar days of receiving the assertion. Prior to reposting the releasable information, the Federal agency must resolve the issue in accordance with the agency's Freedom of Information Act procedures.

(c) When a Federal award is terminated or partially terminated, both the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity and the non-Federal entity remain responsible for compliance with the requirements in §§200.343 Closeout and 200.344 Post-closeout adjustments and continuing responsibilities.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 80 FR 43309, July 22, 2015]

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§200.340   Notification of termination requirement.

(a) The Federal agency or pass-through entity must provide to the non-Federal entity a notice of termination.

(b) If the Federal award is terminated for the non-Federal entity's material failure to comply with the Federal statutes, regulations, or terms and conditions of the Federal award, the notification must state that—

(1) The termination decision will be reported to the OMB-designated integrity and performance system accessible through SAM (currently FAPIIS);

(2) The information will be available in the OMB-designated integrity and performance system for a period of five years from the date of the termination, then archived;

(3) Federal awarding agencies that consider making a Federal award to the non-Federal entity during that five year period must consider that information in judging whether the non-Federal entity is qualified to receive the Federal award, when the Federal share of the Federal award is expected to exceed the simplified acquisition threshold over the period of performance;

(4) The non-Federal entity may comment on any information the OMB-designated integrity and performance system contains about the non-Federal entity for future consideration by Federal awarding agencies. The non-Federal entity may submit comments to the awardee integrity and performance portal accessible through SAM (currently (CPARS).

(5) Federal awarding agencies will consider non-Federal entity comments when determining whether the non-Federal entity is qualified for a future Federal award.

(c) Upon termination of a Federal award, the Federal awarding agency must provide the information required under FFATA to the Federal Web site established to fulfill the requirements of FFATA, and update or notify any other relevant governmentwide systems or entities of any indications of poor performance as required by 41 U.S.C. 417b and 31 U.S.C. 3321 and implementing guidance at 2 CFR part 77 (forthcoming at time of publication). See also the requirements for Suspension and Debarment at 2 CFR part 180.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75885, Dec. 19, 2014; 80 FR 43310, July 22, 2015]

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§200.341   Opportunities to object, hearings and appeals.

Upon taking any remedy for non-compliance, the Federal awarding agency must provide the non-Federal entity an opportunity to object and provide information and documentation challenging the suspension or termination action, in accordance with written processes and procedures published by the Federal awarding agency. The Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity must comply with any requirements for hearings, appeals or other administrative proceedings to which the non-Federal entity is entitled under any statute or regulation applicable to the action involved.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75885, Dec. 19, 2014]

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§200.342   Effects of suspension and termination.

Costs to the non-Federal entity resulting from obligations incurred by the non-Federal entity during a suspension or after termination of a Federal award or subaward are not allowable unless the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity expressly authorizes them in the notice of suspension or termination or subsequently. However, costs during suspension or after termination are allowable if:

(a) The costs result from obligations which were properly incurred by the non-Federal entity before the effective date of suspension or termination, are not in anticipation of it; and

(b) The costs would be allowable if the Federal award was not suspended or expired normally at the end of the period of performance in which the termination takes effect.

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Closeout

§200.343   Closeout.

The Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity will close-out the Federal award when it determines that all applicable administrative actions and all required work of the Federal award have been completed by the non-Federal entity. This section specifies the actions the non-Federal entity and Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity must take to complete this process at the end of the period of performance.

(a) The non-Federal entity must submit, no later than 90 calendar days after the end date of the period of performance, all financial, performance, and other reports as required by the terms and conditions of the Federal award. The Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity may approve extensions when requested by the non-Federal entity.

(b) Unless the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity authorizes an extension, a non-Federal entity must liquidate all obligations incurred under the Federal award not later than 90 calendar days after the end date of the period of performance as specified in the terms and conditions of the Federal award.

(c) The Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity must make prompt payments to the non-Federal entity for allowable reimbursable costs under the Federal award being closed out.

(d) The non-Federal entity must promptly refund any balances of unobligated cash that the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity paid in advance or paid and that are not authorized to be retained by the non-Federal entity for use in other projects. See OMB Circular A-129 and see §200.345 Collection of amounts due, for requirements regarding unreturned amounts that become delinquent debts.

(e) Consistent with the terms and conditions of the Federal award, the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity must make a settlement for any upward or downward adjustments to the Federal share of costs after closeout reports are received.

(f) The non-Federal entity must account for any real and personal property acquired with Federal funds or received from the Federal Government in accordance with §§200.310 Insurance coverage through 200.316 Property trust relationship and 200.329 Reporting on real property.

(g) The Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity should complete all closeout actions for Federal awards no later than one year after receipt and acceptance of all required final reports.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75885, Dec. 19, 2014]

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Post-Closeout Adjustments and Continuing Responsibilities

§200.344   Post-closeout adjustments and continuing responsibilities.

(a) The closeout of a Federal award does not affect any of the following:

(1) The right of the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity to disallow costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review. The Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity must make any cost disallowance determination and notify the non-Federal entity within the record retention period.

(2) The obligation of the non-Federal entity to return any funds due as a result of later refunds, corrections, or other transactions including final indirect cost rate adjustments.

(3) Audit requirements in Subpart F—Audit Requirements of this part.

(4) Property management and disposition requirements in Subpart D—Post Federal Award Requirements of this part, §§200.310 Insurance Coverage through 200.316 Property trust relationship.

(5) Records retention as required in Subpart D—Post Federal Award Requirements of this part, §§200.333 Retention requirements for records through 200.337 Restrictions on public access to records.

(b) After closeout of the Federal award, a relationship created under the Federal award may be modified or ended in whole or in part with the consent of the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity and the non-Federal entity, provided the responsibilities of the non-Federal entity referred to in paragraph (a) of this section, including those for property management as applicable, are considered and provisions made for continuing responsibilities of the non-Federal entity, as appropriate.

[78 FR 78608, Dec. 26, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 75885, Dec. 19, 2014]

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Collection of Amounts Due

§200.345   Collection of amounts due.

(a) Any funds paid to the non-Federal entity in excess of the amount to which the non-Federal entity is finally determined to be entitled under the terms of the Federal award constitute a debt to the Federal Government. If not paid within 90 calendar days after demand, the Federal awarding agency may reduce the debt by:

(1) Making an administrative offset against other requests for reimbursements;

(2) Withholding advance payments otherwise due to the non-Federal entity; or

(3) Other action permitted by Federal statute.

(b) Except where otherwise provided by statutes or regulations, the Federal awarding agency will charge interest on an overdue debt in accordance with the Federal Claims Collection Standards (31 CFR parts 900 through 999). The date from which interest is computed is not extended by litigation or the filing of any form of appeal.

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