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Title 45 Part 681 → §681.3

Title 45 → Subtitle B → Chapter VI → Part 681 → §681.3

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 45 Part 681 → §681.3

e-CFR data is current as of November 14, 2019

Title 45Subtitle BChapter VIPart 681 → §681.3


Title 45: Public Welfare
PART 681—PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS


§681.3   What is the basis for the imposition of civil penalties and assessments?

(a) Claims. (1) Any person shall be subject, in addition to any other remedy that may be prescribed by law, to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each claim if that person makes a claim that the person knows or has reason to know—

(i) Is false, fictitious, or fraudulent;

(ii) Includes or is supported by any written statement which asserts a material fact which is false, fictitious, or fraudulent;

(iii) Includes or is supported by any written statement that—

(A) Omits a material fact;

(B) Is false, fictitious, or fraudulent as a result of such omission; and

(C) Is a statement in which the person making such statement has a duty to include such material fact; or

(iv) Is for payment for the provision of property or services which the person has not provided as claimed.

(2) Each voucher, invoice, claim form, or other individual request or demand for property, services, or money constitutes a separate claim.

(3) A claim shall be considered made to the authority, recipient, or party when such a claim is actually made to an agent, fiscal intermediary, or other entity, including any State or political subdivision of a State, acting for or on behalf of NSF.

(4) Each claim for property, services, or money is subject to a civil penalty regardless of whether such property, services, or money is actually delivered or paid.

(5) If the Government has made any payment on a claim, a person subject to a civil penalty under paragraph (a)(1) of this section may also be subject to an assessment of not more than twice the amount of such claim or that portion thereof that is determined to be in violation of paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Such assessment shall be in lieu of damages sustained by the Government because of such a claim.

(b) Statements. (1) Any person shall be subject, in addition to any other remedy that may be prescribed by law, to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each statement if that person makes a written statement that the person knows or has reason to know—

(i) Asserts a material fact which is false, fictitious, or fraudulent; or

(ii) Is false, fictitious, or fraudulent because it omits a material fact that the person making the statement has a duty to include in such a statement; and

(iii) Contains or is accompanied by an express certification or affirmation of the truthfulness and accuracy of the contents of this statement.

(2) A person will only be subject to a civil penalty under 681.3(b)(1) if the written statement made by the person contains or is accompanied by an express certification or affirmation of the truthfulness and accuracy of the contents of this statement.

(3) Each written representation, certification, or affirmation constitutes a separate statement.

(4) A statement shall be considered made to NSF when it is actually made to an agent, fiscal intermediary, or other entity, including any State or political subdivision of a State, acting for or on behalf of NSF.

(c) No proof of specific intent to defraud is required to establish liability under this section.

(d) In any case in which it is determined that more than one person is liable for making a false, fictitious, or fraudulent claim or statement under this section, each such person may be held liable for a civil penalty and assessment, where appropriate, under this section.

(e) In any case in which it is determined that more than one person is liable for making a claim under this section on which the Government has made payment, an assessment may be imposed against any such person or jointly and severally against any combination of persons.

(f) For claims or statements made on or after August 1, 2016, but before January 1, 2017, the maximum penalty which may be assessed under part 681 of the title is $10,781. For claims or statements made on or after January 1, 2017, the maximum penalty which may be assessed under part 681 of the title is the larger of:

(1) The amount for the previous calendar year, or

(2) An amount adjusted for inflation, calculated by multiplying the amount for the previous calendar year by the percentage by which the CPI-U for the month of October preceding the current calendar year exceeds the CPI-U for the month of October of the calendar year two years prior to the current calendar year, adding that amount to the amount for the previous calendar year, and rounding the total to the nearest dollar.

(g) Notice of the maximum penalty, which may be assessed under part 681 of this title for calendar years after 2016, will be published by NSF in the Federal Register on an annual basis on or before January 15 of each calendar year.

[74 FR 26794, June 4, 2009, as amended at 81 FR 41452, June 27, 2016]


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