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Title 40 Part 1051 → Subpart G

Title 40 → Chapter I → Subchapter U → Part 1051 → Subpart G

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 40 Part 1051 → Subpart G

e-CFR data is current as of December 6, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter UPart 1051 → Subpart G


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 1051—CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES


§1051.601   What compliance provisions apply to vehicles and engines subject to this part?

Engine and vehicle manufacturers, as well as owners, operators, and rebuilders of these vehicles, and all other persons, must observe the requirements and prohibitions in part 1068 of this chapter and the requirements of the Act. The compliance provisions in this subpart apply only to the vehicles and engines we regulate in this part.

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§1051.605   What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large Spark-ignition program?

(a) General provisions. If you are an engine manufacturer, this section allows you to introduce into commerce new recreational vehicles, and engines for recreational vehicles, if the engines are already certified to the requirements that apply to spark-ignition engines under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86 or 40 CFR part 1048 for the appropriate model year. If you comply with all the provisions of this section, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 or 1048 for each engine to also be a valid certificate of conformity under this part 1051 for its model year, without a separate application for certification under the requirements of this part 1051. See §1051.610 for similar provisions that apply to vehicles that are already certified to the vehicle-based standards for motor vehicles.

(b) Vehicle-manufacturer provisions. If you are not an engine manufacturer, you may install an engine certified for the appropriate model year under 40 CFR part 86 or 1048 in a recreational vehicle as long as you meet all the requirements and conditions specified in paragraph (d) of this section. If you modify the non-recreational engine in any of the ways described in paragraph (d)(2) of this section for installation in a recreational vehicle, we will consider you a manufacturer of recreational vehicles. Such engine modifications prevent you from using the provisions of this section.

(c) Liability. Engines for which you meet the requirements of this section are exempt from all the requirements and prohibitions of this part, except for those specified in this section. Engines exempted under this section must meet all the applicable requirements from 40 CFR parts 85 and 86 or 40 CFR part 1048. This paragraph (c) applies to engine manufacturers, vehicle manufacturers who use such an engine, and all other persons as if the engine were used in its originally intended application. The prohibited acts of 40 CFR 1068.101(a)(1) apply to these new engines and vehicles; however, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 or 1048 for each engine to also be a valid certificate of conformity under this part 1051 for its model year. If we make a determination that these engines do not conform to the regulations during their useful life, we may require you to recall them under this part 1051 or under 40 CFR part 85 or 1068.505.

(d) Specific requirements. If you are an engine or vehicle manufacturer and meet all the following criteria and requirements regarding your new engine or vehicle, the vehicle using the engine is eligible for an exemption under this section:

(1) Your engine must be covered by a valid certificate of conformity issued under 40 CFR part 86 or 1048.

(2) You must not make any changes to the certified engine that could reasonably be expected to increase its exhaust emissions for any pollutant, or its evaporative emissions. For example, if you make any of the following changes to one of these engines, you do not qualify for this exemption:

(i) Change any fuel system or evaporative system parameters from the certified configuration (this does not apply to refueling controls).

(ii) Change, remove, or fail to properly install any other component, element of design, or calibration specified in the engine manufacturer's application for certification. This includes aftertreatment devices and all related components.

(iii) Modify or design the engine cooling system so that temperatures or heat rejection rates are outside the original engine manufacturer's specified ranges.

(3) You must show that fewer than 50 percent of the engine family's total sales in the United States are used in recreational vehicles. This includes engines used in any application, without regard to which company manufactures the vehicle or equipment. Show this as follows:

(i) If you are the original manufacturer of the engine, base this showing on your sales information.

(ii) In all other cases, you must get the original manufacturer of the engine to confirm this based on its sales information.

(4) You must ensure that the engine has the emission control information label we require under 40 CFR part 86 or 1048.

(5) You must add a permanent supplemental label to the engine in a position where it will remain clearly visible after installation in the vehicle. In the supplemental label, do the following:

(i) Include the heading: “RECREATIONAL VEHICLE EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION”.

(ii) Include your full corporate name and trademark. You may instead include the full corporate name and trademark of another company you choose to designate.

(iii) State: “THIS ENGINE WAS ADAPTED FOR A RECREATIONAL USE WITHOUT AFFECTING ITS EMISSION CONTROLS.”.

(iv) State the date you finished installation (month and year), if applicable.

(6) The original and supplemental labels must be readily visible after the engine is installed in the vehicle or, if the vehicle obscures the engine's emission control information label, the make sure the vehicle manufacturer attaches duplicate labels, as described in 40 CFR 1068.105.

(7) Send the Designated Compliance Officer a signed letter by the end of each calendar year (or less often if we tell you) with all the following information:

(i) Identify your full corporate name, address, and telephone number.

(ii) List the engine or vehicle models you expect to produce under this exemption in the coming year and describe your basis for meeting the sales restrictions of paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

(iii) State: “We produce each listed [engine or vehicle] model for recreational application without making any changes that could increase its certified emission levels, as described in 40 CFR 1051.605.”.

(e) Failure to comply. If your engines do not meet the criteria listed in paragraph (d) of this section, they will be subject to the standards, requirements, and prohibitions of this part 1051 and the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 or 1048 will not be deemed to also be a certificate issued under this part 1051. Introducing these engines into commerce without a valid exemption or certificate of conformity under this part violates the prohibitions in 40 CFR 1068.101(a)(1).

(f) Data submission. We may require you to send us emission test data on any applicable nonroad duty cycles.

(g) Participation in averaging, banking and trading. Engines or vehicles adapted for recreational use under this section may not generate or use emission credits under this part 1051. These engines or vehicles may generate credits under the ABT provisions in 40 CFR part 86. These engines or vehicles must use emission credits under 40 CFR part 86 if they are certified to an FEL that exceeds an applicable standard.

[70 FR 40501, July 13, 2005, as amended at 73 FR 59254, Oct. 8, 2008]

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§1051.610   What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program?

(a) General provisions. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer, this section allows you to introduce new recreational vehicles into commerce if the vehicle is already certified to the requirements that apply under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86. If you comply with all of the provisions of this section, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to also be a valid certificate of conformity for the engine under this part 1051 for its model year, without a separate application for certification under the requirements of this part 1051. This section applies especially for highway motorcycles that are modified for recreational nonroad use. See §1051.605 for similar provisions that apply to motor-vehicle engines or Large SI engines produced for recreational vehicles.

(b) Nonroad vehicle-manufacturer provisions. If you are not a motor-vehicle manufacturer, you may produce recreational vehicles from motor vehicles under this section as long as you meet all the requirements and conditions specified in paragraph (d) of this section. If you modify the motor vehicle or its engine in any of the ways described in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, we will consider you a manufacturer of a new recreational vehicle. Such modifications prevent you from using the provisions of this section.

(c) Liability. Engines and vehicles for which you meet the requirements of this section are exempt from all the requirements and prohibitions of this part, except for those specified in this section. Engines exempted under this section must meet all the applicable requirements from 40 CFR parts 85 and 86. This applies to engine manufacturers, vehicle manufacturers, and all other persons as if the recreational vehicles were motor vehicles. The prohibited acts of 40 CFR 1068.101(a)(1) apply to these new recreational vehicles; however, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to also be a valid certificate of conformity for the recreational vehicle under this part 1051 for its model year. If we make a determination that these engines or vehicles do not conform to the regulations during their useful life, we may require you to recall them under 40 CFR part 86 or 40 CFR 1068.505.

(d) Specific requirements. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer and meet all the following criteria and requirements regarding your new recreational vehicle and its engine, the vehicle is eligible for an exemption under this section:

(1) Your vehicle must be covered by a valid certificate of conformity as a motor vehicle issued under 40 CFR part 86.

(2) You must not make any changes to the certified vehicle that we could reasonably expect to increase its exhaust emissions for any pollutant, or its evaporative emissions if it is subject to evaporative-emission standards. For example, if you make any of the following changes, you do not qualify for this exemption:

(i) Change any fuel system parameters from the certified configuration.

(ii) Change, remove, or fail to properly install any other component, element of design, or calibration specified in the vehicle manufacturer's application for certification. This includes aftertreatment devices and all related components.

(iii) Modify or design the engine cooling system so that temperatures or heat rejection rates are outside the original vehicle manufacturer's specified ranges.

(iv) Add more than 500 pounds to the curb weight of the originally certified motor vehicle.

(3) You must show that fewer than 50 percent of the engine family's total sales in the United States are used in recreational vehicles. This includes any type of vehicle, without regard to which company completes the manufacturing of the recreational vehicle. Show this as follows:

(i) If you are the original manufacturer of the vehicle, base this showing on your sales information.

(ii) In all other cases, you must get the original manufacturer of the vehicle to confirm this based on their sales information.

(4) The vehicle must have the vehicle emission control information we require under 40 CFR part 86.

(5) You must add a permanent supplemental label to the vehicle in a position where it will remain clearly visible. In the supplemental label, do the following:

(i) Include the heading: “RECREATIONAL VEHICLE ENGINE EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION”.

(ii) Include your full corporate name and trademark. You may instead include the full corporate name and trademark of another company you choose to designate.

(iii) State: “THIS VEHICLE WAS ADAPTED FOR RECREATIONAL USE WITHOUT AFFECTING ITS EMISSION CONTROLS.”.

(iv) State the date you finished modifying the vehicle (month and year), if applicable.

(6) The original and supplemental labels must be readily visible in the fully assembled vehicle.

(7) Send the Designated Compliance Officer a signed letter by the end of each calendar year (or less often if we tell you) with all the following information:

(i) Identify your full corporate name, address, and telephone number.

(ii) List the vehicle models you expect to produce under this exemption in the coming year and describe your basis for meeting the sales restrictions of paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

(iii) State: “We produced each listed engine or vehicle model for recreational application without making any changes that could increase its certified emission levels, as described in 40 CFR 1051.610.”.

(e) Failure to comply. If your engines or vehicles do not meet the criteria listed in paragraph (d) of this section, the engines will be subject to the standards, requirements, and prohibitions of this part 1051, and the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 will not be deemed to also be a certificate issued under this part 1051. Introducing these engines into commerce without a valid exemption or certificate of conformity under this part violates the prohibitions in 40 CFR 1068.101(a)(1).

(f) Data submission. We may require you to send us emission test data on any applicable nonroad duty cycles.

(g) Participation in averaging, banking and trading. Vehicles adapted for recreational use under this section may not generate or use emission credits under this part 1051. These vehicles may generate credits under the ABT provisions in 40 CFR part 86. These vehicles must use emission credits under 40 CFR part 86 if they are certified to an FEL that exceeds an emission standard that applies.

[70 FR 40502, July 13, 2005, as amended at 73 FR 59254, Oct. 8, 2008]

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§1051.615   What are the special provisions for certifying small recreational engines?

(a) You may certify ATVs with engines that have total displacement of less than 100 cc to the following exhaust emission standards instead of certifying them to the exhaust emission standards of subpart B of this part:

(1) 25.0 g/kW-hr HC + NOX, with an FEL cap of 40.0 g/kW-hr HC + NOX.

(2) 500 g/kW-hr CO.

(b) You may certify off-highway motorcycles with engines that have total displacement of 70 cc or less to the following exhaust emission standards instead of certifying them to the exhaust emission standards of subpart B of this part:

(1) 16.1 g/kW-hr HC + NOX, with an FEL cap of 32.2 g/kW-hr HC + NOX.

(2) 519 g/kW-hr CO.

(c) You may use the averaging, banking, and trading provisions of subpart H of this part to show compliance with this HC + NOX standards (an engine family meets emission standards even if its family emission limit is higher than the standard, as long as you show that the whole averaging set of applicable engine families meet the applicable emission standards using emission credits, and the vehicles within the family meet the family emission limit). You may not use averaging to meet the CO standards of this section.

(d) Measure steady-state emissions by testing the engine on an engine dynamometer using the equipment and procedures of 40 CFR part 1065 with either discrete-mode or ramped-modal cycles. You must use the type of testing you select in your application for certification for all testing you perform for that engine family. If we test your engines to confirm that they meet emission standards, we will do testing the same way. If you submit certification test data collected with both discrete-mode and ramped-modal testing (either in your original application or in an amendment to your application), either method may be used for subsequent testing. We may also perform other testing as allowed by the Clean Air Act. Measure steady-state emissions as follows:

(1) For discrete-mode testing, sample emissions separately for each mode, then calculate an average emission level for the whole cycle using the weighting factors specified for each mode. In each mode, operate the engine for at least 5 minutes, then sample emissions for at least 1 minute. Calculate cycle statistics for the sequence of modes and compare with the specified values in 40 CFR 1065.514 to confirm that the test is valid.

(2) For ramped-modal testing, start sampling at the beginning of the first mode and continue sampling until the end of the last mode. Calculate emissions and cycle statistics the same as for transient testing.

(3) Measure emissions by testing the engine on a dynamometer with one or more of the following sets of duty cycles to determine whether it meets applicable emission standards:

(i) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing:

Table 1 of §1051.615—6-Mode Duty Cycle for Recreational Engines

Mode No.Engine speed
(percent)1
Torque
(percent)2
Minimum time in mode
(minutes)
Weighting factors
1851005.00.09
285755.00.20
385505.00.29
485255.00.30
585105.00.07
6Idle05.00.05

1Percent speed is percent of maximum test speed.

2Percent torque is percent of maximum torque at the commanded test speed.

(ii) The following duty cycle applies for ramped-modal testing:

Table 2 of §1051.615—Ramped-modal Cycle for Testing Recreational Engines

RMC mode Time Speed
(percent)1 2
Torque
(percent)2 3
1a Steady-state41Warm Idle0.
1b Transition20Linear TransitionLinear Transition.
2a Steady-state13585100.
2b Transition2085Linear Transition.
3a Steady-state1128510.
3b Transition2085Linear Transition.
4a Steady-state3378575.
4b Transition2085Linear Transition.
5a Steady-state5188525.
5b Transition2085Linear Transition.
6a Steady-state4948550.
6b Transition20Linear TransitionLinear Transition.
7 Steady-state43Warm Idle0.

1Percent speed is percent of maximum test speed.

2Advance from one mode to the next within a 20-second transition phase. During the transition phase, command a linear progression from the torque setting of the current mode to the torque setting of the next mode.

3Percent torque is percent of maximum torque at the commanded test speed.

(4) During idle mode, operate the engine at its warm idle speed as described in 40 CFR 1065.510.

(5) For the full-load operating mode, operate the engine at wide-open throttle.

(6) See 40 CFR part 1065 for detailed specifications of tolerances and calculations.

(e) All other requirements and prohibitions of this part apply to these engines and vehicles.

[67 FR 68347, Nov. 8, 2002, as amended at 70 FR 40503, July 13, 2005; 73 FR 59254, Oct. 8, 2008]

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§1051.620   When may a manufacturer obtain an exemption for competition recreational vehicles?

(a) We may grant you an exemption from the standards and requirements of this part for a new recreational vehicle on the grounds that it is to be used solely for competition. The provisions of this part other than those in this section do not apply to recreational vehicles that we exempt for use solely for competition.

(b) We will exempt vehicles that we determine will be used solely for competition. The basis of our determinations are described in paragraphs (b)(1), (b)(2), and (c) of this section. Exemptions granted under this section are good for only one model year and you must request renewal for each subsequent model year. We will not approve your renewal request if we determine the vehicles will not be used solely for competition.

(1) Off-highway motorcycles. Motorcycles that are marketed and labeled as only for competitive use and that meet at least four of the criteria listed in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (vi) of this section are considered to be used solely for competition, except in cases where other information is available that indicates that they are not used solely for competition. The following features are indicative of motorcycles used solely for competition:

(i) The absence of a headlight or other lights.

(ii) The absence of a spark arrestor.

(iii) The absence of manufacturer warranty.

(iv) Suspension travel greater than 10 inches.

(v) Engine displacement greater than 50 cc.

(vi) The absence of a functional seat. (For example, a seat with less than 30 square inches of seating surface would generally not be considered a functional seat).

(2) Snowmobiles and ATVs. Snowmobiles and ATVs meeting all of the following criteria are considered to be used solely for competition, except in cases where other information is available that indicates that they are not used solely for competition:

(i) The vehicle or engine may not be displayed for sale in any public dealership.

(ii) Sale of the vehicle must be limited to professional racers or other qualified racers.

(iii) The vehicle must have performance characteristics that are substantially superior to noncompetitive models.

(c) Vehicles not meeting the applicable criteria listed in paragraph (b) of this section will be exempted only in cases where the manufacturer has clear and convincing evidence that the vehicles will be used solely for competition.

(d) You must permanently label vehicles exempted under this section to clearly indicate that they are to be used only for competition. Failure to properly label a vehicle will void the exemption for that vehicle.

(e) If we request it, you must provide us any information we need to determine whether the vehicles are used solely for competition.

[67 FR 68347, Nov. 8, 2002, as amended at 70 FR 40504, July 13, 2005]

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§1051.625   What special provisions apply to unique snowmobile designs for small-volume manufacturers?

(a) If you are a small-volume manufacturer, we may permit you to produce up to 600 snowmobiles per year that are certified to less stringent emission standards than those in §1051.103, as long as you meet all the conditions and requirements in this section.

(b) To apply for alternate standards under this section, send the Designated Officer a written request. In your request, do two things:

(1) Show that the snowmobile has unique design, calibration, or operating characteristics that make it atypical and infeasible or highly impractical to meet the emission standards in §1051.103, considering technology, cost, and other factors.

(2) Identify the level of compliance you can achieve, including a description of available emission-control technologies and any constraints that may prevent more effective use of these technologies.

(c) You must give us other relevant information if we ask for it.

(d) An authorized representative of your company must sign the request and include the statement: “All the information in this request is true and accurate, to the best of my knowledge.”.

(e) Send your request for this extension at least nine months before the relevant deadline. If different deadlines apply to companies that are not small-volume manufacturers, do not send your request before the regulations in question apply to the other manufacturers.

(f) If we approve your request, we will set alternate standards for your qualifying snowmobiles. These standards will not be above 400 g/kW-hr for CO or 150 g/kW-hr for HC.

(g) You may produce these snowmobiles to meet the alternate standards we establish under this section as long as you continue to produce them at the same or lower emission levels.

(h) You may not include snowmobiles you produce under this section in any averaging, banking, or trading calculations under Subpart H of this part.

(i) You must meet all the requirements of this part, except as noted in this section.

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§1051.630   What special provisions apply to unique snowmobile designs for all manufacturers?

(a) We may permit you to produce up to 600 snowmobiles per year that are certified to the FELs listed in this section without new test data, as long as you meet all the conditions and requirements in this section.

(b) You may certify these snowmobiles with FELs of 560 g/kW-hr for CO and 270 g/kW-hr for HC (using the normal certification procedures).

(c) The emission levels described in this section are intended to represent worst-case emission levels. You may not certify snowmobiles under this section if good engineering judgment indicates that they have emission rates higher than these levels.

(d) Include snowmobiles you produce under this section in your averaging calculations under Subpart H of this part.

(e) You must meet all the requirements of this part, unless the regulations of this part specify otherwise.

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§1051.635   What provisions apply to new manufacturers that are small businesses?

(a) If you are a small business (as defined by the Small Business Administration at 13 CFR 121.201) that manufactures recreational vehicles, but does not otherwise qualify for the small-volume manufacturer provisions of this part, you may ask us to designate you to be a small-volume manufacturer. You may do this whether you began manufacturing recreational vehicles before, during, or after 2002.

(b) We may set other reasonable conditions that are consistent with the intent of this section and the Act. For example, we may place sales limits on companies that we designate to be small-volume manufacturers under this section.

[67 FR 68347, Nov. 8, 2002, as amended at 73 FR 59255, Oct. 8, 2008]

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§1051.640   What special provisions apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles?

You may ask to exempt custom-designed off-highway motorcycles that are substantially similar to highway motorcycles under the display exemption provisions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c). Motorcycles exempt under this provision are subject to the restrictions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c) and are considered to be motor vehicles for the purposes of this part 1051.

[69 FR 2445, Jan. 15, 2004]

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§1051.645   What special provisions apply to branded engines?

The following provisions apply if you identify the name and trademark of another company instead of your own on your emission control information label, as provided by §1051.135(c)(2):

(a) You must have a contractual agreement with the other company that obligates that company to take the following steps:

(1) Meet the emission warranty requirements that apply under §1051.120. This may involve a separate agreement involving reimbursement of warranty-related expenses.

(2) Report all warranty-related information to the certificate holder.

(b) In your application for certification, identify the company whose trademark you will use.

(c) You remain responsible for meeting all the requirements of this chapter, including warranty and defect-reporting provisions.

[70 FR 40504, July 13, 2005, as amended at 73 FR 59255, Oct. 8, 2008]

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§1051.650   What special provisions apply for converting a vehicle to use an alternate fuel?

A certificate of conformity is no longer valid for a vehicle if the vehicle is modified such that it is not in a configuration covered by the certificate. This section applies if such modifications are done to convert the vehicle to run on a different fuel type. Such vehicles may be recertified as specified in this section if the original certificate is no longer valid for that vehicle.

(a) Converting a certified new vehicle to run on a different fuel type violates 40 CFR 1068.101(a)(1) if the modified vehicle is not covered by a certificate of conformity.

(b) Converting a certified vehicle that is not new to run on a different fuel type violates 40 CFR 1068.101(b)(1) if the modified vehicle is not covered by a certificate of conformity. We may specify alternate certification provisions consistent with the requirements of this part. For example, you may certify the modified vehicle for a partial useful life. For example, if the vehicle is modified halfway through its original useful life period, you may generally certify the vehicle based on completing the original useful life period; or if the vehicle is modified after the original useful life period is past, you may generally certify the vehicle based on testing that does not involve further durability demonstration.

(c) Vehicles (or engines) may be certified using the certification procedures for new vehicles (or engines) as specified in this part or using the certification procedures for aftermarket parts as specified in 40 CFR part 85, subpart V. Unless the original vehicle manufacturer continues to be responsible for the vehicle as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, you must remove the original manufacturer's emission control information label if you recertify the vehicle.

(d) The original vehicle manufacturer is not responsible for operation of modified vehicles in configurations resulting from modifications performed by others. In cases where the modification allows a vehicle to be operated in either its original configuration or a modified configuration, the original vehicle manufacturer remains responsible for operation of the modified vehicle in its original configuration.

(e) Entities producing conversion kits may obtain certificates of conformity for the converted vehicles. Such entities are vehicle manufacturers for purposes of this part.

[73 FR 59255, Oct. 8, 2008]

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