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Title 40 Part 1033 → Subpart D

Title 40 → Chapter I → Subchapter U → Part 1033 → Subpart D

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 40 Part 1033 → Subpart D

e-CFR data is current as of December 4, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter UPart 1033 → Subpart D


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 1033—CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES


§1033.301   Applicability.

The requirements of this part apply to manufacturers/remanufacturers of locomotives certified under this part, with the following exceptions:

(a) The requirements of §§1033.310, 1033.315, 1033.320, and 1033.330 apply only to manufacturers of freshly manufactured locomotives or locomotive engines (including those used for repowering). We may also apply these requirements to remanufacturers of any locomotives for which there is reason to believe production problems exist that could affect emission performance. When we make a determination that production problems may exist that could affect emission performance, we will notify the remanufacturer(s). The requirements of §§1033.310, 1033.315, 1033.320, and 1033.330 will apply as specified in the notice.

(b) The requirements of §1033.335 apply only to remanufacturers.

(c) As specified in §1033.1(d), we may apply the requirements of this subpart to manufacturers/remanufacturers that do not certify the locomotives. However, unless we specify otherwise, the requirements of this subpart apply to manufacturers/remanufacturers that hold the certificates for the locomotives.

[73 FR 37197, June 30, 2008, as amended at 81 FR 74006, Oct. 25, 2016]

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§1033.305   General requirements.

(a) Manufacturers (and remanufacturers, where applicable) are required to test production line locomotives using the test procedures specified in §1033.315. While this subpart refers to locomotive testing, you may ask to test locomotive engines instead of testing locomotives.

(b) Remanufacturers are required to conduct audits according to the requirements of §1033.335 to ensure that remanufactured locomotives comply with the requirements of this part.

(c) If you certify an engine family with carryover emission data, as described in §1033.235, and these equivalent engine families consistently pass the production-line testing requirements over the preceding two-year period, you may ask for a reduced testing rate for further production-line testing for that family. If we reduce your testing rate, we may limit our approval to any number of model years. In determining whether to approve your request, we may consider the number of locomotives that have failed emission tests.

(d) You may ask to use an alternate program or measurement method for testing production-line engines. In your request, you must show us that the alternate program gives equal assurance that your engines meet the requirements of this part. We may waive some or all of this subpart's requirements if we approve your alternate program.

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§1033.310   Sample selection for testing.

(a) At the start of each model year, begin randomly selecting locomotives from each engine family for production line testing at a rate of one percent. Make the selection of the test locomotive after it has been assembled. Perform the testing throughout the entire model year to the extent possible, unless we specify a different schedule for your tests. For example, we may require you to disproportionately select locomotives from the early part of a model year for a new locomotive model that has not been subject to PLT previously.

(1) The required sample size for an engine family (provided that no locomotive tested fails to meet applicable emission standards) is the lesser of five tests per model year or one percent of projected annual production, with a minimum sample size for an engine family of one test per model year. See paragraph (d) of this section to determine the required number of test locomotives if any locomotives fail to comply with any standards.

(2) You may elect to test additional locomotives. All additional locomotives must be tested in accordance with the applicable test procedures of this part.

(b) You must assemble the test locomotives using the same production process that will be used for locomotives to be introduced into commerce. You may ask us to allow special assembly procedures for catalyst-equipped locomotives.

(c) Unless we approve it, you may not use any quality control, testing, or assembly procedures that you do not use during the production and assembly of all other locomotives of that family. This applies for any test locomotive or any portion of a locomotive, including engines, parts, and subassemblies.

(d) If one or more locomotives fail a production line test, then you must test two additional locomotives from the next fifteen produced in that engine family for each locomotive that fails. These two additional locomotives do not count towards your minimum number of locomotives. For example, if you are required to test a minimum of four locomotives under paragraph (a) of this section and the second locomotive fails to comply with one or more standards, then you must test two additional locomotives from the next fifteen produced in that engine family. If both of those locomotives pass all standards, you are required to test two additional locomotives to complete the original minimum number of four. If they both pass, you are done with testing for that family for the year since you tested six locomotives (the four originally required plus the two additional locomotives).

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§1033.315   Test procedures.

(a) Test procedures. Use the test procedures described in subpart F of this part, except as specified in this section.

(1) You may ask to use other test procedures. We will approve your request if we determine that it is not possible to perform satisfactory testing using the specified procedures. We may also approve alternate test procedures under §1033.305(d).

(2) If you used test procedures other than those in subpart F of this part during certification for the engine family (other than alternate test procedures necessary for testing a development engine or a low hour engine instead of a low mileage locomotive), use the same test procedures for production line testing that you used in certification.

(b) Modifying a test locomotive. Once an engine is selected for testing, you may adjust, repair, maintain, or modify it or check its emissions only if one of the following is true:

(1) You document the need for doing so in your procedures for assembling and inspecting all your production engines and make the action routine for all the engines in the engine family.

(2) This subpart otherwise specifically allows your action.

(3) We approve your action in advance.

(c) Adjustable parameters. (1) Confirm that adjustable parameters are set to values or positions that are within the range recommended to the ultimate purchaser.

(2) We may require to be adjusted any adjustable parameter to any setting within the specified adjustable range of that parameter prior to the performance of any test.

(d) Stabilizing emissions. You may stabilize emissions from the locomotives to be tested through service accumulation by running the engine through a typical duty cycle. Emissions are considered stabilized after 300 hours of operation. You may accumulate fewer hours, consistent with good engineering judgment. You may establish a Green Engine Factor for each regulated pollutant for each engine family, instead of (or in combination with) accumulating actual operation, to be used in calculating emissions test results. You must obtain our approval prior to using a Green Engine Factor. For catalyst-equipped locomotives, you may operate the locomotive for up to 1000 hours (in revenue or other service) prior to testing.

(e) Adjustment after shipment. If a locomotive is shipped to a facility other than the production facility for production line testing, and an adjustment or repair is necessary because of such shipment, you may perform the necessary adjustment or repair only after the initial test of the locomotive, unless we determine that the test would be impossible to perform or would permanently damage the locomotive.

(f) Malfunctions. If a locomotive cannot complete the service accumulation or an emission test because of a malfunction, you may request that we authorize either the repair of that locomotive or its deletion from the test sequence.

(g) Retesting. If you determine that any production line emission test of a locomotive is invalid, you must retest it in accordance with the requirements of this subpart. Report emission results from all tests to us, including test results you determined are invalid. You must also include a detailed explanation of the reasons for invalidating any test in the quarterly report required in §1033.320(e). In the event a retest is performed, you may ask us within ten days of the end of the production quarter for permission to substitute the after-repair test results for the original test results. We will respond to the request within ten working days of our receipt of the request.

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§1033.320   Calculation and reporting of test results.

(a) Calculate initial test results using the applicable test procedure specified in §1033.315(a). Include applicable non-deterioration adjustments such as a Green Engine Factor or regeneration adjustment factor. Round the results to one more decimal place than the applicable emission standard.

(b) If you conduct multiple tests on any locomotives, calculate final test results by summing the initial test results derived in paragraph (a) of this section for each test locomotive, dividing by the number of tests conducted on the locomotive, and rounding to one more decimal place than the applicable emission standard. For catalyst-equipped locomotives, you may ask us to allow you to exclude an initial failed test if all of the following are true:

(1) The catalyst was in a green condition when tested initially.

(2) The locomotive met all emission standards when retested after degreening the catalyst.

(3) No additional emission-related maintenance or repair was performed between the initial failed test and the subsequent passing test.

(c) Calculate the final test results for each test locomotive by applying the appropriate deterioration factors, derived in the certification process for the engine family, to the final test results, and rounding to one more decimal place than the applicable emission standard.

(d) If, subsequent to an initial failure of a production line test, the average of the test results for the failed locomotive and the two additional locomotives tested, is greater than any applicable emission standard or FEL, the engine family is deemed to be in non-compliance with applicable emission standards, and you must notify us within ten working days of such noncompliance.

(e) Within 45 calendar days of the end of each quarter, you must send to the Designated Compliance Officer a report with the following information:

(1) The location and description of the emission test facilities which you used to conduct your testing.

(2) Total production and sample size for each engine family tested.

(3) The applicable standards against which each engine family was tested.

(4) For each test conducted, include all of the following:

(i) A description of the test locomotive, including:

(A) Configuration and engine family identification.

(B) Year, make, and build date.

(C) Engine identification number.

(D) Number of megawatt-hours (or miles if applicable) of service accumulated on locomotive prior to testing.

(E) Description of Green Engine Factor; how it is determined and how it is applied.

(ii) Location(s) where service accumulation was conducted and description of accumulation procedure and schedule, if applicable. If the locomotive was introduced into service between assembly and testing, you are only required to summarize the service accumulation, rather than identifying specific locations.

(iii) Test number, date, test procedure used, initial test results before and after rounding, and final test results for all production line emission tests conducted, whether valid or invalid, and the reason for invalidation of any test results, if applicable.

(iv) A complete description of any adjustment, modification, repair, preparation, maintenance, and testing which was performed on the test locomotive, has not been reported pursuant to any other paragraph of this subpart, and will not be performed on other production locomotives.

(v) Any other information we may ask you to add to your written report so we can determine whether your new engines conform with the requirements of this part.

(5) For each failed locomotive as defined in §1033.330(a), a description of the remedy and test results for all retests as required by §1033.340(g).

(6) The following signed statement and endorsement by an authorized representative of your company:

We submit this report under sections 208 and 213 of the Clean Air Act. Our production-line testing conformed completely with the requirements of 40 CFR part 1033. We have not changed production processes or quality-control procedures for the test locomotives in a way that might affect emission controls. All the information in this report is true and accurate to the best of my knowledge. I know of the penalties for violating the Clean Air Act and the regulations. (Authorized Company Representative)

[73 FR 37197, June 30, 2008, as amended at 81 FR 74006, Oct. 25, 2016]

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§1033.325   Maintenance of records; submittal of information.

(a) You must establish, maintain, and retain the following adequately organized and indexed test records:

(1) A description of all equipment used to test locomotives. The equipment requirements in subpart F of this part apply to tests performed under this subpart. Maintain these records for each test cell that can be used to perform emission testing under this subpart.

(2) Individual test records for each production line test or audit including:

(i) The date, time, and location of each test or audit.

(ii) The method by which the Green Engine Factor was calculated or the number of hours of service accumulated on the test locomotive when the test began and ended.

(iii) The names of all supervisory personnel involved in the conduct of the production line test or audit;

(iv) A record and description of any adjustment, repair, preparation or modification performed on test locomotives, giving the date, associated time, justification, name(s) of the authorizing personnel, and names of all supervisory personnel responsible for the conduct of the action.

(v) If applicable, the date the locomotive was shipped from the assembly plant, associated storage facility or port facility, and the date the locomotive was received at the testing facility.

(vi) A complete record of all emission tests or audits performed under this subpart (except tests performed directly by us), including all individual worksheets and/or other documentation relating to each test, or exact copies thereof, according to the record requirements specified in subpart F of this part and 40 CFR part 1065.

(vii) A brief description of any significant events during testing not otherwise described under this paragraph (a)(2), commencing with the test locomotive selection process and including such extraordinary events as engine damage during shipment.

(b) Keep all records required to be maintained under this subpart for a period of eight years after completion of all testing. Store these records in any format and on any media, as long as you can promptly provide to us organized, written records in English if we ask for them and all the information is retained.

(c) Send us the following information with regard to locomotive production if we ask for it:

(1) Projected production for each configuration within each engine family for which certification has been requested and/or approved.

(2) Number of locomotives, by configuration and assembly plant, scheduled for production.

(d) Nothing in this section limits our authority to require you to establish, maintain, keep or submit to us information not specified by this section. We may also ask you to send less information.

(e) Send all reports, submissions, notifications, and requests for approval made under this subpart to the Designated Compliance Officer using an approved format.

(f) You must keep a copy of all reports submitted under this subpart.

[73 FR 37197, June 30, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 22984, Apr. 30, 2010]

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§1033.330   Compliance criteria for production line testing.

There are two types of potential failures: failure of an individual locomotive to comply with the standards, and a failure of an engine family to comply with the standards.

(a) A failed locomotive is one whose final test results pursuant to §1033.320(c), for one or more of the applicable pollutants, exceed an applicable emission standard or FEL.

(b) An engine family is deemed to be in noncompliance, for purposes of this subpart, if at any time throughout the model year, the average of an initial failed locomotive and the two additional locomotives tested, is greater than any applicable emission standard or FEL.

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§1033.335   Remanufactured locomotives: installation audit requirements.

The section specifies the requirements for certifying remanufacturers to audit the remanufacture of locomotives covered by their certificates of conformity for proper components, component settings and component installations on randomly chosen locomotives in an engine family.

(a) You must ensure that all emission related components are properly installed on the locomotive and are set to the proper specification as indicated in your instructions. You may submit audits performed by the owners/operators of the locomotives, provided the audits are performed in accordance with the provisions of this section. We may require that you obtain affidavits for audits performed by owners/operators.

(b) Audit at least five percent of your annual production per model year per installer or ten per engine family per installer, whichever is less. You must perform more audits if there are any failures. Randomly select the locomotives to be audited after the remanufacture is complete. We may allow you to select locomotives prior to the completion of the remanufacture, if the preselection would not have the potential to affect the manner in which the locomotive was remanufactured (e.g., where the installer is not aware of the selection prior to the completion of the remanufacture). Unless we specify otherwise, you are not required to audit installers that remanufacture fewer than 10 locomotives per year under your certificates (combined for all of your engine families).

(c) The audit should be completed as soon as is practical after the remanufacture is complete. In no case may the remanufactured locomotive accumulate more than 45,000 miles prior to an audit.

(d) A locomotive fails if any emission related components are found to be improperly installed, improperly adjusted or incorrectly used.

(e) If a remanufactured locomotive fails an audit, then you must audit two additional locomotives from the next ten remanufactured in that engine family by that installer.

(f) An engine family is determined to have failed an audit, if at any time during the model year, you determine that the three locomotives audited are found to have had any improperly installed, improperly adjusted or incorrectly used components. You must notify us within 2 working days of a determination of an engine family audit failure.

(g) Within 45 calendar days of the end of each quarter, the remanufacturer must send the Designated Compliance Officer a report which includes the following information:

(1) The location and description of your audit facilities which were utilized to conduct auditing reported pursuant to this section;

(2) Total production and sample size for each engine family;

(3) The applicable standards and/or FELs against which each engine family was audited;

(4) For each audit conducted:

(i) A description of the audited locomotive, including:

(A) Configuration and engine family identification;

(B) Year, make, build date, and remanufacture date; and

(C) Locomotive and engine identification numbers;

(ii) Any other information we request relevant to the determination whether the new locomotives being remanufactured do in fact conform with the regulations with respect to which the certificate of conformity was issued;

(5) For each failed locomotive as defined in paragraph (d) of this section, a description of the remedy as required by §1033.340(g);

(6) The following signed statement and endorsement by your authorized representative:

We submit this report under sections 208 and 213 of the Clean Air Act. Our production-line auditing conformed completely with the requirements of 40 CFR part 1033. We have not changed production processes or quality-control procedures for the audited locomotives in a way that might affect emission controls. All the information in this report is true and accurate to the best of my knowledge. I know of the penalties for violating the Clean Air Act and the regulations. (Authorized Company Representative)

[73 FR 37197, June 30, 2008, as amended at 73 FR 59190, Oct. 8, 2008]

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§1033.340   Suspension and revocation of certificates of conformity.

(a) A certificate can be suspended for an individual locomotive as follows:

(1) The certificate of conformity is automatically suspended for any locomotive that fails a production line test pursuant to §1033.330(a), effective from the time the testing of that locomotive is completed.

(2) The certificate of conformity is automatically suspended for any locomotive that fails an audit pursuant to §1033.335(d), effective from the time that auditing of that locomotive is completed.

(b) A certificate can be suspended for an engine family as follows:

(1) We may suspend the certificate of conformity for an engine family that is in noncompliance pursuant to §1033.330(b), thirty days after the engine family is deemed to be in noncompliance.

(2) We may suspend the certificate of conformity for an engine family that is determined to have failed an audit pursuant to §1033.335(f). This suspension will not occur before thirty days after the engine family is deemed to be in noncompliance.

(c) If we suspend your certificate of conformity for an engine family, the suspension may apply to all facilities producing engines from an engine family, even if you find noncompliant engines only at one facility.

(d) We may revoke a certificate of conformity for any engine family in whole or in part if:

(1) You fail to comply with any of the requirements of this subpart.

(2) You submit false or incomplete information in any report or information provided to us under this subpart.

(3) You render inaccurate any test data submitted under this subpart.

(4) An EPA enforcement officer is denied the opportunity to conduct activities authorized in this subpart.

(5) An EPA enforcement officer is unable to conduct authorized activities for any reason.

(e) We will notify you in writing of any suspension or revocation of a certificate of conformity in whole or in part; a suspension or revocation is effective upon receipt of such notification or thirty days from the time a locomotive or engine family is deemed to be in noncompliance under §§1033.320(d), 1033.330(a), 1033.330(b), or 1033.335(f) is made, whichever is earlier, except that the certificate is immediately suspended with respect to any failed locomotives as provided for in paragraph (a) of this section.

(f) We may revoke a certificate of conformity for an engine family when the certificate has been suspended under paragraph (b) or (c) of this section if the remedy is one requiring a design change or changes to the locomotive, engine and/or emission control system as described in the application for certification of the affected engine family.

(g) Once a certificate has been suspended for a failed locomotive, as provided for in paragraph (a) of this section, you must take all the following actions before the certificate is reinstated for that failed locomotive:

(1) Remedy the nonconformity.

(2) Demonstrate that the locomotive conforms to applicable standards or family emission limits by retesting, or reauditing if applicable, the locomotive in accordance with this part.

(3) Submit a written report to us after successful completion of testing (or auditing, if applicable) on the failed locomotive, which contains a description of the remedy and testing (or auditing) results for each locomotive in addition to other information that may be required by this part.

(h) Once a certificate for a failed engine family has been suspended pursuant to paragraph (b) or (c) of this section, you must take the following actions before we will consider reinstating the certificate:

(1) Submit a written report to us identifying the reason for the noncompliance of the locomotives, describing the remedy, including a description of any quality control measures you will use to prevent future occurrences of the problem, and stating the date on which the remedies will be implemented.

(2) Demonstrate that the engine family for which the certificate of conformity has been suspended does in fact comply with the regulations of this part by testing (or auditing) locomotives selected from normal production runs of that engine family. Such testing (or auditing) must comply with the provisions of this subpart. If you elect to continue testing (or auditing) individual locomotives after suspension of a certificate, the certificate is reinstated for any locomotive actually determined to be in conformance with the applicable standards or family emission limits through testing (or auditing) in accordance with the applicable test procedures, provided that we have not revoked the certificate under paragraph (f) of this section.

(i) If the certificate has been revoked for an engine family, you must take the following actions before we will issue a certificate that would allow you to continue introduction into commerce of a modified version of that family:

(1) If we determine that the change(s) in locomotive design may have an effect on emission deterioration, we will notify you within five working days after receipt of the report in paragraph (h) of this section, whether subsequent testing/auditing under this subpart will be sufficient to evaluate the change(s) or whether additional testing (or auditing) will be required.

(2) After implementing the change or changes intended to remedy the nonconformity, you must demonstrate that the modified engine family does in fact conform with the regulations of this part by testing locomotives (or auditing for remanufactured locomotives) selected from normal production runs of that engine family. When both of these requirements are met, we will reissue the certificate or issue a new certificate. If this subsequent testing (or auditing) reveals failing data the revocation remains in effect.

(j) At any time subsequent to an initial suspension of a certificate of conformity for a test or audit locomotive pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section, but not later than 30 days (or such other period as may we allow) after the notification our decision to suspend or revoke a certificate of conformity in whole or in part pursuant to this section, you may request a hearing as to whether the tests or audits have been properly conducted or any sampling methods have been properly applied. (See §1033.920.)

(k) Any suspension of a certificate of conformity under paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section will be made only after you have been offered an opportunity for a hearing conducted in accordance with §1033.920. It will not apply to locomotives no longer in your possession.

(l) If we suspend, revoke, or void a certificate of conformity, and you believe that our decision was based on erroneous information, you may ask us to reconsider our decision before requesting a hearing. If you demonstrate to our satisfaction that our decision was based on erroneous information, we will reinstate the certificate.

(m) We may conditionally reinstate the certificate for that family so that you do not have to store non-test locomotives while conducting subsequent testing or auditing of the noncomplying family subject to the following condition: you must commit to recall all locomotives of that family produced from the time the certificate is conditionally reinstated if the family fails subsequent testing, or auditing if applicable, and must commit to remedy any nonconformity at no expense to the owner.

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