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Title 40 Part 1033 → Subpart C

Title 40 → Chapter I → Subchapter U → Part 1033 → Subpart C

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 40 Part 1033 → Subpart C

e-CFR data is current as of December 6, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter UPart 1033 → Subpart C


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 1033—CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES


§1033.201   General requirements for obtaining a certificate of conformity.

Certification is the process by which you demonstrate to us that your freshly manufactured or remanufactured locomotives will meet the applicable emission standards throughout their useful lives (explaining to us how you plan to manufacture or remanufacture locomotives, and providing test data showing that such locomotives will comply with all applicable emission standards). Anyone meeting the definition of manufacturer in §1033.901 may apply for a certificate of conformity for freshly manufactured locomotives. Anyone meeting the definition of remanufacturer in §1033.901 may apply for a certificate of conformity for remanufactured locomotives.

(a) You must send us a separate application for a certificate of conformity for each engine family. A certificate of conformity is valid for new production from the indicated effective date, until the end of the model year for which it is issued, which may not extend beyond December 31 of that year. No certificate will be issued after December 31 of the model year. You may amend your application for certification after the end of the model year in certain circumstances as described in §§1033.220 and 1033.225. You must renew your certification annually for any locomotives you continue to produce.

(b) The application must contain all the information required by this part and must not include false or incomplete statements or information (see §1033.255).

(c) We may ask you to include less information than we specify in this subpart, as long as you maintain all the information required by §1033.250.

(d) You must use good engineering judgment for all decisions related to your application (see 40 CFR 1068.5).

(e) An authorized representative of your company must approve and sign the application.

(f) See §1033.255 for provisions describing how we will process your application.

(g) We may require you to deliver your test locomotives (including test engines, as applicable) to a facility we designate for our testing (see §1033.235(c)). Alternatively, you may choose to deliver another engine/locomotive that is identical in all material respects to the test locomotive, or another engine/locomotive that we determine can appropriately serve as an emission-data locomotive for the engine family.

(h) By applying for a certificate of conformity, you are accepting responsibility for the in-use emission performance of all properly maintained and used locomotives covered by your certificate. This responsibility applies without regard to whether you physically manufacture or remanufacture the entire locomotive. If you do not physically manufacture or remanufacture the entire locomotive, you must take reasonable steps (including those specified by this part) to ensure that the locomotives produced under your certificate conform to the specifications of your application for certification. Note that this paragraph does not limit any liability under this part or the Clean Air Act for entities that do not obtain certificates. This paragraph also does not prohibit you from making contractual arrangements with noncertifiers related to recovering damages for noncompliance.

(i) The provisions of this subpart describe how to obtain a certificate that covers all standards and requirements. Manufacturer/remanufacturers may ask to obtain a certificate of conformity that does not cover the idle control requirements of §1033.115 or one that only covers the idle control requirements of §1033.115. Remanufacturers obtaining such partial certificates must include a statement in their installation instructions that two certificates and labels are required for a locomotive to be in a fully certified configuration. We may modify the certification requirements for certificates that will only cover idle control systems.

[73 FR 37197, June 30, 2008, as amended at 81 FR 74005, Oct. 25, 2016]

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§1033.205   Applying for a certificate of conformity.

(a) Send the Designated Compliance Officer a complete application for each engine family for which you are requesting a certificate of conformity.

(b) [Reserved]

(c) You must update and correct your application to accurately reflect your production, as described in §1033.225.

(d) Include the following information in your application:

(1) A description of the basic engine design including, but not limited to, the engine family specifications listed in §1033.230. For freshly manufactured locomotives, a description of the basic locomotive design. For remanufactured locomotives, a description of the basic locomotive designs to which the remanufacture system will be applied. Include in your description, a list of distinguishable configurations to be included in the engine family. Note whether you are requesting a certificate that will or will not cover idle controls.

(2) An explanation of how the emission control system operates, including detailed descriptions of:

(i) All emission control system components.

(ii) Injection or ignition timing for each notch (i.e., degrees before or after top-dead-center), and any functional dependence of such timing on other operational parameters (e.g., engine coolant temperature).

(iii) Each auxiliary emission control device (AECD).

(iv) All fuel system components to be installed on any production or test locomotives.

(v) Diagnostics.

(3) A description of the test locomotive.

(4) A description of the test equipment and fuel used. Identify any special or alternate test procedures you used.

(5) A description of the operating cycle and the period of operation necessary to accumulate service hours on the test locomotive and stabilize emission levels. You may also include a Green Engine Factor that would adjust emissions from zero-hour engines to be equivalent to stabilized engines.

(6) A description of all adjustable operating parameters (including, but not limited to, injection timing and fuel rate), including the following:

(i) The nominal or recommended setting and the associated production tolerances.

(ii) The intended adjustable range, and the physically adjustable range.

(iii) The limits or stops used to limit adjustable ranges.

(iv) Production tolerances of the limits or stops used to establish each physically adjustable range.

(v) Information relating to why the physical limits or stops used to establish the physically adjustable range of each parameter, or any other means used to inhibit adjustment, are the most effective means possible of preventing adjustment of parameters to settings outside your specified adjustable ranges on in-use engines.

(7) Projected U.S. production information for each configuration. If you are projecting substantially different sales of a configuration than you had previously, we may require you to explain why you are projecting the change.

(8)(i) All test data you obtained for each test engine or locomotive. As described in §1033.235, we may allow you to demonstrate compliance based on results from previous emission tests, development tests, or other testing information. Include data for NOx, PM, HC, CO, and CO2.

(ii) Report measured CO2, N2O, and CH4 as described in §1033.235. Small manufacturers/remanufacturers may omit reporting N2O and CH4.

(9) The intended deterioration factors for the engine family, in accordance with §1033.245. If the deterioration factors for the engine family were developed using procedures that we have not previously approved, you should request preliminary approval under §1033.210.

(10) The intended useful life period for the engine family, in accordance with §1033.101(g). If the useful life for the engine family was determined using procedures that we have not previously approved, you should request preliminary approval under §1033.210.

(11) Copies of your proposed emission control label(s), maintenance instructions, and installation instructions (where applicable).

(12) An unconditional statement declaring that all locomotives included in the engine family comply with all requirements of this part and the Clean Air Act.

(e) If we request it, you must supply such additional information as may be required to evaluate the application.

(f) Provide the information to read, record, and interpret all the information broadcast by a locomotive's onboard computers and electronic control units. State that, upon request, you will give us any hardware, software, or tools we would need to do this. You may reference any appropriate publicly released standards that define conventions for these messages and parameters. Format your information consistent with publicly released standards.

(g) Include the information required by other subparts of this part. For example, include the information required by §1033.725 if you participate in the ABT program.

(h) Include other applicable information, such as information specified in this part or part 1068 of this chapter related to requests for exemptions.

(i) Name an agent for service located in the United States. Service on this agent constitutes service on you or any of your officers or employees for any action by EPA or otherwise by the United States related to the requirements of this part.

(j) For imported locomotives, we may require you to describe your expected importation process.

[73 FR 37197, June 30, 2008, as amended at 73 FR 59190, Oct. 8, 2008; 74 FR 56508, Oct. 30, 2008]

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§1033.210   Preliminary approval.

(a) If you send us information before you finish the application, we will review it and make any appropriate determinations for questions related to engine family definitions, auxiliary emission-control devices, deterioration factors, testing for service accumulation, maintenance, and useful lives.

(b) Decisions made under this section are considered to be preliminary approval, subject to final review and approval. We will generally not reverse a decision where we have given you preliminary approval, unless we find new information supporting a different decision.

(c) If you request preliminary approval related to the upcoming model year or the model year after that, we will make best-efforts to make the appropriate determinations as soon as practicable. We will generally not provide preliminary approval related to a future model year more than three years ahead of time.

(d) You must obtain preliminary approval for your plan to develop deterioration factors prior to the start of any service accumulation to be used to develop the factors.

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§1033.220   Amending maintenance instructions.

You may amend your emission-related maintenance instructions after you submit your application for certification, as long as the amended instructions remain consistent with the provisions of §1033.125. You must send the Designated Compliance Officer a request to amend your application for certification for an engine family if you want to change the emission-related maintenance instructions in a way that could affect emissions. In your request, describe the proposed changes to the maintenance instructions. If owners/operators follow the original maintenance instructions rather than the newly specified maintenance, this does not allow you to disqualify those locomotives from in-use testing or deny a warranty claim.

(a) If you are decreasing or eliminating any of the specified maintenance, you may distribute the new maintenance instructions to your customers 30 days after we receive your request, unless we disapprove your request. This would generally include replacing one maintenance step with another. We may approve a shorter time or waive this requirement.

(b) If your requested change would not decrease the specified maintenance, you may distribute the new maintenance instructions anytime after you send your request. For example, this paragraph (b) would cover adding instructions to increase the frequency of filter changes for locomotives in severe-duty applications.

(c) You do not need to request approval if you are making only minor corrections (such as correcting typographical mistakes), clarifying your maintenance instructions, or changing instructions for maintenance unrelated to emission control. We may ask you to send us copies of maintenance instructions revised under this paragraph (c).

[73 FR 37197, June 30, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 22983, Apr. 30, 2010]

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§1033.225   Amending applications for certification.

Before we issue you a certificate of conformity, you may amend your application to include new or modified locomotive configurations, subject to the provisions of this section. After we have issued your certificate of conformity, you may send us an amended application requesting that we include new or modified locomotive configurations within the scope of the certificate, subject to the provisions of this section. You must also amend your application if any changes occur with respect to any information that is included or should be included in your application. For example, you must amend your application if you determine that your actual production variation for an adjustable parameter exceeds the tolerances specified in your application.

(a) You must amend your application before you take either of the following actions:

(1) Add a locomotive configuration to an engine family. In this case, the locomotive added must be consistent with other locomotives in the engine family with respect to the criteria listed in §1033.230. For example, you must amend your application if you want to produce 12-cylinder versions of the 16-cylinder locomotives you described in your application.

(2) Change a locomotive already included in an engine family in a way that may affect emissions, or change any of the components you described in your application for certification. This includes production and design changes that may affect emissions any time during the locomotive's lifetime. For example, you must amend your application if you want to change a part supplier if the part was described in your original application and is different in any material respect than the part you described.

(3) Modify an FEL for an engine family as described in paragraph (f) of this section.

(b) To amend your application for certification, send the relevant information to the Designated Compliance Officer.

(1) Describe in detail the addition or change in the locomotive model or configuration you intend to make.

(2) Include engineering evaluations or data showing that the amended engine family complies with all applicable requirements. You may do this by showing that the original emission-data locomotive is still appropriate for showing that the amended family complies with all applicable requirements.

(3) If the original emission-data locomotive for the engine family is not appropriate to show compliance for the new or modified locomotive, include new test data showing that the new or modified locomotive meets the requirements of this part.

(4) Include any other information needed to make your application correct and complete.

(c) We may ask for more test data or engineering evaluations. You must give us these within 30 days after we request them.

(d) For engine families already covered by a certificate of conformity, we will determine whether the existing certificate of conformity covers your new or modified locomotive. You may ask for a hearing if we deny your request (see §1033.920).

(e) For engine families already covered by a certificate of conformity, you may start producing the new or modified locomotive anytime after you send us your amended application, before we make a decision under paragraph (d) of this section. However, if we determine that the affected locomotives do not meet applicable requirements, we will notify you to cease production of the locomotives and may require you to recall the locomotives at no expense to the owner. Choosing to produce locomotives under this paragraph (e) is deemed to be consent to recall all locomotives that we determine do not meet applicable emission standards or other requirements and to remedy the nonconformity at no expense to the owner. If you do not provide information required under paragraph (c) of this section within 30 days after we request it, you must stop producing the new or modified locomotives.

(f) You may ask us to approve a change to your FEL in certain cases after the start of production. The changed FEL may not apply to locomotives you have already introduced into U.S. commerce, except as described in this paragraph (f). If we approve a changed FEL after the start of production, you must include the new FEL on the emission control information label for all locomotives produced after the change. You may ask us to approve a change to your FEL in the following cases:

(1) You may ask to raise your FEL for your engine family at any time. In your request, you must show that you will still be able to meet the emission standards as specified in subparts B and H of this part. If you amend your application by submitting new test data to include a newly added or modified locomotive, as described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, use the appropriate FELs with corresponding production volumes to calculate emission credits for the model year, as described in subpart H of this part. In all other circumstances, you must use the higher FEL for the entire family to calculate emission credits under subpart H of this part.

(2) You may ask to lower the FEL for your emission family only if you have test data from production locomotives showing that emissions are below the proposed lower FEL. The lower FEL applies only to engines or fuel-system components you produce after we approve the new FEL. Use the appropriate FELs with corresponding production volumes to calculate emission credits for the model year, as described in subpart H of this part.

(g) You may produce engines as described in your amended application for certification and consider those engines to be in a certified configuration if we approve a new or modified engine configuration during the model year under paragraph (d) of this section. Similarly, you may modify in-use engines as described in your amended application for certification and consider those engines to be in a certified configuration if we approve a new or modified engine configuration at any time under paragraph (d) of this section. Modifying a new or in-use engine to be in a certified configuration does not violate the tampering prohibition of 40 CFR 1068.101(b)(1), as long as this does not involve changing to a certified configuration with a higher family emission limit.

[73 FR 37197, June 30, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 22983, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74005, Oct. 25, 2016]

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§1033.230   Grouping locomotives into engine families.

(a) Divide your product line into engine families of locomotives that are expected to have similar emission characteristics throughout the useful life. Your engine family is limited to a single model year. Freshly manufactured locomotives may not be included in the same engine family as remanufactured locomotives, except as allowed by paragraph (f) of this section. Paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section specify default criteria for dividing locomotives into engine families. Paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section allow you deviate from these defaults in certain circumstances.

(b) This paragraph (b) applies for all locomotives other than Tier 0 locomotives. Group locomotives in the same engine family if they are the same in all the following aspects:

(1) The combustion cycle (e.g., diesel cycle).

(2) The type of engine cooling employed and procedure(s) employed to maintain engine temperature within desired limits (thermostat, on-off radiator fan(s), radiator shutters, etc.).

(3) The nominal bore and stroke dimensions.

(4) The approximate intake and exhaust event timing and duration (valve or port).

(5) The location of the intake and exhaust valves (or ports).

(6) The size of the intake and exhaust valves (or ports).

(7) The overall injection or ignition timing characteristics (i.e., the deviation of the timing curves from the optimal fuel economy timing curve must be similar in degree).

(8) The combustion chamber configuration and the surface-to-volume ratio of the combustion chamber when the piston is at top dead center position, using nominal combustion chamber dimensions.

(9) The location of the piston rings on the piston.

(10) The method of air aspiration (turbocharged, supercharged, naturally aspirated, Roots blown).

(11) The general performance characteristics of the turbocharger or supercharger (e.g., approximate boost pressure, approximate response time, approximate size relative to engine displacement).

(12) The type of air inlet cooler (air-to-air, air-to-liquid, approximate degree to which inlet air is cooled).

(13) The intake manifold induction port size and configuration.

(14) The type of fuel and fuel system configuration.

(15) The configuration of the fuel injectors and approximate injection pressure.

(16) The type of fuel injection system controls (i.e., mechanical or electronic).

(17) The type of smoke control system.

(18) The exhaust manifold port size and configuration.

(19) The type of exhaust aftertreatment system (oxidation catalyst, particulate trap), and characteristics of the aftertreatment system (catalyst loading, converter size vs. engine size).

(c) Group Tier 0 locomotives in the same engine family if they are the same in all the following aspects:

(1) The combustion cycle (e.g., diesel cycle).

(2) The type of engine cooling employed and procedure(s) employed to maintain engine temperature within desired limits (thermostat, on-off radiator fan(s), radiator shutters, etc.).

(3) The approximate bore and stroke dimensions.

(4) The approximate location of the intake and exhaust valves (or ports).

(5) The combustion chamber general configuration and the approximate surface-to-volume ratio of the combustion chamber when the piston is at top dead center position, using nominal combustion chamber dimensions.

(6) The method of air aspiration (turbocharged, supercharged, naturally aspirated, Roots blown).

(7) The type of air inlet cooler (air-to-air, air-to-liquid, approximate degree to which inlet air is cooled).

(8) The type of fuel and general fuel system configuration.

(9) The general configuration of the fuel injectors and approximate injection pressure.

(10) The type of fuel injection system control (electronic or mechanical).

(d) You may subdivide a group of locomotives that is identical under paragraph (b) or (c) of this section into different engine families if you show the expected emission characteristics are different during the useful life. This allowance also covers locomotives for which only calculated emission rates differ, such as locomotives with and without energy-saving design features. For the purposes of determining whether an engine family is a small engine family in §1033.405(a)(2), we will consider the number of locomotives that could have been classed together under paragraph (b) or (c) of this section, instead of the number of locomotives that are included in a subdivision allowed by this paragraph (d).

(e) In unusual circumstances, you may group locomotives that are not identical with respect to the things listed in paragraph (b) or (c) of this section in the same engine family if you show that their emission characteristics during the useful life will be similar.

(f) During the first six calendar years after a new tier of standards becomes applicable, remanufactured engines/locomotives may be included in the same engine family as freshly manufactured locomotives, provided the same engines and emission controls are used for locomotive models included in the engine family.

[73 FR 37197, June 30, 2008, as amended at 73 FR 59190, Oct. 8, 2008]

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§1033.235   Emission testing required for certification.

This section describes the emission testing you must perform to show compliance with the emission standards in §1033.101.

(a) Select an emission-data locomotive (or engine) from each engine family for testing. It may be a low mileage locomotive, or a development engine (that is equivalent in design to the engines of the locomotives being certified), or another low hour engine. Use good engineering judgment to select the locomotive configuration that is most likely to exceed (or have emissions nearest to) an applicable emission standard or FEL. In making this selection, consider all factors expected to affect emission control performance and compliance with the standards, including emission levels of all exhaust constituents, especially NOX and PM.

(b) Test your emission-data locomotives using the procedures and equipment specified in subpart F of this part. In the case of dual-fuel locomotives, measure emissions when operating with each type of fuel for which you intend to certify the locomotive. In the case of flexible-fuel locomotives, measure emissions when operating with the fuel mixture that best represents in-use operation or is most likely to have the highest NOX emissions, though you may ask us instead to perform tests with both fuels separately if you can show that intermediate mixtures are not likely to occur in use.

(c) We may perform confirmatory testing by measuring emissions from any of your emission-data locomotives or other locomotives from the engine family.

(1) We may decide to do the testing at your plant or any other facility. If we do this, you must deliver the locomotive to a test facility we designate. If we do the testing at your plant, you must schedule it as soon as possible and make available the instruments, personnel, and equipment we need.

(2) If we measure emissions from one of your locomotives, the results of that testing become the official emission results for the locomotive. Unless we later invalidate these data, we may decide not to consider your data in determining if your engine family meets applicable requirements.

(3) Before we test one of your locomotives, we may set its adjustable parameters to any point within the adjustable ranges (see §1033.115(b)).

(4) Before we test one of your locomotives, we may calibrate it within normal production tolerances for anything we do not consider an adjustable parameter. For example, this would apply for a parameter that is subject to production variability because it is adjustable during production, but is not considered an adjustable parameter (as defined in §1033.901) because it is permanently sealed.

(d) You may ask to use carryover emission data from a previous model year instead of doing new tests if all the following are true:

(1) The engine family from the previous model year differs from the current engine family only with respect to model year, items identified in §1033.225(a), or other factors not related to emissions. We may waive this criterion for differences we determine not to be relevant.

(2) The emission-data locomotive from the previous model year remains the appropriate emission-data locomotive under paragraph (b) of this section.

(3) The data show that the emission-data locomotive would meet all the requirements that apply to the engine family covered by the application for certification.

(e) You may ask to use emission data from a different engine family you have already certified instead of testing a locomotive in the second engine family if all the following are true:

(1) The same engine is used in both engine families.

(2) You demonstrate to us that the differences in the two families are sufficiently small that the locomotives in the untested family will meet the same applicable notch standards calculated from the test data.

(f) We may require you to test a second locomotive of the same or different configuration in addition to the locomotive tested under paragraph (b) of this section.

(g) If you use an alternate test procedure under 40 CFR 1065.10 and later testing shows that such testing does not produce results that are equivalent to the procedures specified in subpart F of this part, we may reject data you generated using the alternate procedure.

(h) The requirement to measure smoke emissions is waived for certification and production line testing, except where there is reason to believe your locomotives do not meet the applicable smoke standards.

(i) Measure CO2 with each test. Measure CH4 with each low-hour certification test using the procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 starting in the 2012 model year. Also measure N2O with each low-hour certification test using the procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 for any engine family that depends on NOx aftertreatment to meet emission standards. Small manufacturers/remanufacturers may omit measurement of N2O and CH4. Use the same units and modal calculations as for your other results to report a single weighted value for CO2, N2O, and CH4. Round the final values as follows:

(1) Round CO2 to the nearest 1 g/bhp-hr.

(2) Round N2O to the nearest 0.001 g/bhp-hr.

(3) Round CH4 to the nearest 0.001g/bhp-hr.

[73 FR 37197, June 30, 2008, as amended at 74 FR 56508, Oct. 30, 2008; 75 FR 22984, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74005, Oct. 25, 2016]

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§1033.240   Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.

(a) For purposes of certification, your engine family is considered in compliance with the applicable numerical emission standards in §1033.101 if all emission-data locomotives representing that family have test results showing official emission results and deteriorated emission levels at or below these standards.

(1) If you include your locomotive in the ABT program in subpart H of this part, your FELs are considered to be the applicable emission standards with which you must comply.

(2) If you do not include your remanufactured locomotive in the ABT program in subpart H of this part, but it was previously included in the ABT program in subpart H of this part, the previous FELs are considered to be the applicable emission standards with which you must comply.

(b) Your engine family is deemed not to comply if any emission-data locomotive representing that family has test results showing an official emission result or a deteriorated emission level for any pollutant that is above an applicable emission standard. Use the following steps to determine the deteriorated emission level for the test locomotive:

(1) Collect emission data using measurements with enough significant figures to calculate the cycle-weighted emission rate to at least one more decimal place than the applicable standard. Apply any applicable humidity corrections before weighting emissions.

(2) Apply the regeneration factors if applicable. At this point the emission rate is generally considered to be an official emission result.

(3) Apply the deterioration factor to the official emission result, as described in §1033.245, then round the adjusted figure to the same number of decimal places as the emission standard. This adjusted value is the deteriorated emission level. Compare these emission levels from the emission-data locomotive with the applicable emission standards. In the case of NOX + NMHC standards, apply the deterioration factor to each pollutant and then add the results before rounding.

(4) The highest deteriorated emission levels for each pollutant are considered to be the certified emission levels.

(c) An owner/operator remanufacturing its locomotives to be identical to their previously certified configuration may certify by design without new emission test data. To do this, submit the application for certification described in §1033.205, but instead of including test data, include a description of how you will ensure that your locomotives will be identical in all material respects to their previously certified condition. You may use reconditioned parts consistent with good engineering judgment. You have all of the liabilities and responsibilities of the certificate holder for locomotives you certify under this paragraph.

[73 FR 37197, June 30, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 22984, Apr. 30, 2010]

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§1033.245   Deterioration factors.

Establish deterioration factors for each pollutant to determine whether your locomotives will meet emission standards for each pollutant throughout the useful life, as described in §1033.240. Determine deterioration factors as described in this section, either with an engineering analysis, with pre-existing test data, or with new emission measurements. The deterioration factors are intended to reflect the deterioration expected to result during the useful life of a locomotive maintained as specified in §1033.125. If you perform durability testing, the maintenance that you may perform on your emission-data locomotive is limited to the maintenance described in §1033.125. You may carry across a deterioration factor from one engine family to another consistent with good engineering judgment.

(a) Your deterioration factors must take into account any available data from in-use testing with similar locomotives, consistent with good engineering judgment. For example, it would not be consistent with good engineering judgment to use deterioration factors that predict emission increases over the useful life of a locomotive or locomotive engine that are significantly less than the emission increases over the useful life observed from in-use testing of similar locomotives.

(b) Apply deterioration factors as follows:

(1) Additive deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. Except as specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, use an additive deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. An additive deterioration factor for a pollutant is the difference between exhaust emissions at the end of the useful life and exhaust emissions at the low-hour test point. In these cases, adjust the official emission results for each tested locomotive at the selected test point by adding the factor to the measured emissions. The deteriorated emission level is intended to represent the highest emission level during the useful life. Thus, if the factor is less than zero, use zero. Additive deterioration factors must be specified to one more decimal place than the applicable standard.

(2) Multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. Use a multiplicative deterioration factor if good engineering judgment calls for the deterioration factor for a pollutant to be the ratio of exhaust emissions at the end of the useful life to exhaust emissions at the low-hour test point. For example, if you use aftertreatment technology that controls emissions of a pollutant proportionally to engine-out emissions, it is often appropriate to use a multiplicative deterioration factor. Adjust the official emission results for each tested locomotive at the selected test point by multiplying the measured emissions by the deterioration factor. The deteriorated emission level is intended to represent the highest emission level during the useful life. Thus, if the factor is less than one, use one. A multiplicative deterioration factor may not be appropriate in cases where testing variability is significantly greater than locomotive-to-locomotive variability. Multiplicative deterioration factors must be specified to one more significant figure than the applicable standard.

(3) Sawtooth and other nonlinear deterioration patterns. The deterioration factors described in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section assume that the highest useful life emissions occur either at the end of useful life or at the low-hour test point. The provisions of this paragraph (b)(3) apply where good engineering judgment indicates that the highest emissions over the useful life will occur between these two points. For example, emissions may increase with service accumulation until a certain maintenance step is performed, then return to the low-hour emission levels and begin increasing again. Base deterioration factors for locomotives with such emission patterns on the difference between (or ratio of) the point at which the highest emissions occur and the low-hour test point. Note that this applies for maintenance-related deterioration only where we allow such critical emission-related maintenance.

(4) Dual-fuel and flexible-fuel engines. In the case of dual-fuel and flexible-fuel locomotives, apply deterioration factors separately for each fuel type by measuring emissions with each fuel type at each test point. You may accumulate service hours on a single emission-data engine using the type of fuel or the fuel mixture expected to have the highest combustion and exhaust temperatures; you may ask us to approve a different fuel mixture if you demonstrate that a different criterion is more appropriate.

(5) Deterioration factor for crankcase emissions. If your engine vents crankcase emissions to the exhaust or to the atmosphere, you must account for crankcase emission deterioration, using good engineering judgment. You may use separate deterioration factors for crankcase emissions of each pollutant (either multiplicative or additive) or include the effects in combined deterioration factors that include exhaust and crankcase emissions together for each pollutant.

(c) Deterioration factors for smoke are always additive.

(d) If your locomotive vents crankcase emissions to the exhaust or to the atmosphere, you must account for crankcase emission deterioration, using good engineering judgment. You may use separate deterioration factors for crankcase emissions of each pollutant (either multiplicative or additive) or include the effects in combined deterioration factors that include exhaust and crankcase emissions together for each pollutant.

(e) Include the following information in your application for certification:

(1) If you determine your deterioration factors based on test data from a different engine family, explain why this is appropriate and include all the emission measurements on which you base the deterioration factor.

(2) If you determine your deterioration factors based on engineering analysis, explain why this is appropriate and include a statement that all data, analyses, evaluations, and other information you used are available for our review upon request.

(3) If you do testing to determine deterioration factors, describe the form and extent of service accumulation, including a rationale for selecting the service-accumulation period and the method you use to accumulate hours.

[73 FR 37197, June 30, 2008, as amended at 81 FR 74005, Oct. 25, 2016]

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§1033.250   Reporting and recordkeeping.

(a) Within 45 days after the end of the model year, send the Designated Compliance Officer a report describing the following information about locomotives you produced during the model year:

(1) Report the total number of locomotives you produced in each engine family by locomotive model and engine model.

(2) If you produced exempted locomotives, report the number of exempted locomotives you produced for each locomotive model and identify the buyer or shipping destination for each exempted locomotive. You do not need to report under this paragraph (a)(2) locomotives that were temporarily exempted, exported locomotives, locomotives exempted as manufacturer/remanufacturer-owned locomotives, or locomotives exempted as test locomotives.

(b) Organize and maintain the following records:

(1) A copy of all applications and any summary information you send us.

(2) Any of the information we specify in §1033.205 that you were not required to include in your application.

(3) A detailed history of each emission-data locomotive. For each locomotive, describe all of the following:

(i) The emission-data locomotive's construction, including its origin and buildup, steps you took to ensure that it represents production locomotives, any components you built specially for it, and all the components you include in your application for certification.

(ii) How you accumulated locomotive operating hours (service accumulation), including the dates and the number of hours accumulated.

(iii) All maintenance, including modifications, parts changes, and other service, and the dates and reasons for the maintenance.

(iv) All your emission tests (valid and invalid), including the date and purpose of each test and documentation of test parameters as specified in part 40 CFR part 1065, and the date and purpose of each test.

(v) All tests to diagnose locomotive or emission control performance, giving the date and time of each and the reasons for the test.

(vi) Any other significant events.

(4) If you test a development engine for certification, you may omit information otherwise required by paragraph (b)(3) of this section that is unrelated to emissions and emission-related components.

(5) Production figures for each engine family divided by assembly plant.

(6) Keep a list of locomotive identification numbers for all the locomotives you produce under each certificate of conformity.

(c) Keep required data from emission tests and all other information specified in this section for eight years after we issue your certificate. If you use the same emission data or other information for a later model year, the eight-year period restarts with each year that you continue to rely on the information.

(d) Store these records in any format and on any media, as long as you can promptly send us organized, written records in English if we ask for them. You must keep these records readily available. We may review them at any time.

(e) Send us copies of any locomotive maintenance instructions or explanations if we ask for them.

[73 FR 37197, June 30, 2008, as amended at 81 FR 74006, Oct. 25, 2016]

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§1033.255   EPA decisions.

(a) If we determine your application is complete and shows that the engine family meets all the requirements of this part and the Clean Air Act, we will issue a certificate of conformity for your engine family for that model year. We may make the approval subject to additional conditions.

(b) We may deny your application for certification if we determine that your engine family fails to comply with emission standards or other requirements of this part or the Clean Air Act. We will base our decision on all available information. If we deny your application, we will explain why in writing.

(c) In addition, we may deny your application or suspend or revoke your certificate if you do any of the following:

(1) Refuse to comply with any testing or reporting requirements.

(2) Submit false or incomplete information (paragraph (e) of this section applies if this is fraudulent). This includes doing anything after submission of your application to render any of the submitted information false or incomplete.

(3) Render inaccurate any test data.

(4) Deny us from completing authorized activities (see 40 CFR 1068.20). This includes a failure to provide reasonable assistance.

(5) Produce locomotives for importation into the United States at a location where local law prohibits us from carrying out authorized activities.

(6) Fail to supply requested information or amend your application to include all locomotives being produced.

(7) Take any action that otherwise circumvents the intent of the Clean Air Act or this part.

(d) We may void the certificate of conformity for an engine family if you fail to keep records, send reports, or give us information as required under this part or the Act. Note that these are also violations of 40 CFR 1068.101(a)(2).

(e) We may void your certificate if we find that you intentionally submitted false or incomplete information. This includes rendering submitted information false or incomplete after submission.

(f) If we deny your application or suspend, revoke, or void your certificate, you may ask for a hearing (see §1033.920).

[73 FR 37197, June 30, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 22984, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74006, Oct. 25, 2016]

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