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Title 40 Part 1033 → Subpart C → §1033.245

Title 40 → Chapter I → Subchapter U → Part 1033 → Subpart C → §1033.245

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 40 Part 1033 → Subpart C → §1033.245

e-CFR data is current as of December 5, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter UPart 1033Subpart C → §1033.245


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 1033—CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES
Subpart C—Certifying Engine Families


§1033.245   Deterioration factors.

Establish deterioration factors for each pollutant to determine whether your locomotives will meet emission standards for each pollutant throughout the useful life, as described in §1033.240. Determine deterioration factors as described in this section, either with an engineering analysis, with pre-existing test data, or with new emission measurements. The deterioration factors are intended to reflect the deterioration expected to result during the useful life of a locomotive maintained as specified in §1033.125. If you perform durability testing, the maintenance that you may perform on your emission-data locomotive is limited to the maintenance described in §1033.125. You may carry across a deterioration factor from one engine family to another consistent with good engineering judgment.

(a) Your deterioration factors must take into account any available data from in-use testing with similar locomotives, consistent with good engineering judgment. For example, it would not be consistent with good engineering judgment to use deterioration factors that predict emission increases over the useful life of a locomotive or locomotive engine that are significantly less than the emission increases over the useful life observed from in-use testing of similar locomotives.

(b) Apply deterioration factors as follows:

(1) Additive deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. Except as specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, use an additive deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. An additive deterioration factor for a pollutant is the difference between exhaust emissions at the end of the useful life and exhaust emissions at the low-hour test point. In these cases, adjust the official emission results for each tested locomotive at the selected test point by adding the factor to the measured emissions. The deteriorated emission level is intended to represent the highest emission level during the useful life. Thus, if the factor is less than zero, use zero. Additive deterioration factors must be specified to one more decimal place than the applicable standard.

(2) Multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. Use a multiplicative deterioration factor if good engineering judgment calls for the deterioration factor for a pollutant to be the ratio of exhaust emissions at the end of the useful life to exhaust emissions at the low-hour test point. For example, if you use aftertreatment technology that controls emissions of a pollutant proportionally to engine-out emissions, it is often appropriate to use a multiplicative deterioration factor. Adjust the official emission results for each tested locomotive at the selected test point by multiplying the measured emissions by the deterioration factor. The deteriorated emission level is intended to represent the highest emission level during the useful life. Thus, if the factor is less than one, use one. A multiplicative deterioration factor may not be appropriate in cases where testing variability is significantly greater than locomotive-to-locomotive variability. Multiplicative deterioration factors must be specified to one more significant figure than the applicable standard.

(3) Sawtooth and other nonlinear deterioration patterns. The deterioration factors described in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section assume that the highest useful life emissions occur either at the end of useful life or at the low-hour test point. The provisions of this paragraph (b)(3) apply where good engineering judgment indicates that the highest emissions over the useful life will occur between these two points. For example, emissions may increase with service accumulation until a certain maintenance step is performed, then return to the low-hour emission levels and begin increasing again. Base deterioration factors for locomotives with such emission patterns on the difference between (or ratio of) the point at which the highest emissions occur and the low-hour test point. Note that this applies for maintenance-related deterioration only where we allow such critical emission-related maintenance.

(4) Dual-fuel and flexible-fuel engines. In the case of dual-fuel and flexible-fuel locomotives, apply deterioration factors separately for each fuel type by measuring emissions with each fuel type at each test point. You may accumulate service hours on a single emission-data engine using the type of fuel or the fuel mixture expected to have the highest combustion and exhaust temperatures; you may ask us to approve a different fuel mixture if you demonstrate that a different criterion is more appropriate.

(5) Deterioration factor for crankcase emissions. If your engine vents crankcase emissions to the exhaust or to the atmosphere, you must account for crankcase emission deterioration, using good engineering judgment. You may use separate deterioration factors for crankcase emissions of each pollutant (either multiplicative or additive) or include the effects in combined deterioration factors that include exhaust and crankcase emissions together for each pollutant.

(c) Deterioration factors for smoke are always additive.

(d) If your locomotive vents crankcase emissions to the exhaust or to the atmosphere, you must account for crankcase emission deterioration, using good engineering judgment. You may use separate deterioration factors for crankcase emissions of each pollutant (either multiplicative or additive) or include the effects in combined deterioration factors that include exhaust and crankcase emissions together for each pollutant.

(e) Include the following information in your application for certification:

(1) If you determine your deterioration factors based on test data from a different engine family, explain why this is appropriate and include all the emission measurements on which you base the deterioration factor.

(2) If you determine your deterioration factors based on engineering analysis, explain why this is appropriate and include a statement that all data, analyses, evaluations, and other information you used are available for our review upon request.

(3) If you do testing to determine deterioration factors, describe the form and extent of service accumulation, including a rationale for selecting the service-accumulation period and the method you use to accumulate hours.

[73 FR 37197, June 30, 2008, as amended at 81 FR 74005, Oct. 25, 2016]


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