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Title 40 Part 85 → Subpart P → §85.1515

Title 40 → Chapter I → Subchapter C → Part 85 → Subpart P → §85.1515

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 40 Part 85 → Subpart P → §85.1515

e-CFR data is current as of December 12, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 85Subpart P → §85.1515


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 85—CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES
Subpart P—Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines


§85.1515   Emission standards and test procedures applicable to imported nonconforming motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines.

(a) Notwithstanding any other requirements of this subpart, any motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine conditionally imported pursuant to §85.1505 or §85.1509 and required to be emission tested shall be tested using the FCT at 40 CFR part 86 applicable to current model year motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines at the time of testing or reduced testing requirements as follows:

(1) ICIs are eligible for reduced testing under this paragraph (a) subject to the following conditions:

(i) The OEM must have a valid certificate of conformity covering the vehicle.

(ii) The vehicle must be in its original configuration as certified by the OEM. This applies for all emission-related components, including the electronic control module, engine calibrations, and all evaporative/refueling control hardware. It also applies for OBD software and hardware, including all sensors and actuators.

(iii) The vehicle modified as described in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section must fully comply with all applicable emission standards and requirements.

(iv) Vehicles must have the proper OBD systems installed and operating. When faults are present, the ICI must test and verify the system's ability to find the faults (such as disconnected components), set codes, and illuminate the light, and set readiness codes as appropriate for each vehicle. When no fault is present, the ICI must verify that after sufficient prep driving (typically one FTP test cycle), all OBD readiness codes are set and the OBD system does not indicate a malfunction (i.e., no codes set and no light illuminated).

(v) The ICI may not modify more than 300 vehicles in any given model year using reduced testing provisions in this paragraph (a).

(vi) The ICI must state in the application for certification that it will meet all the conditions in this paragraph (a)(1).

(2) The following provisions allow for ICIs to certify vehicles with reduced testing:

(i) In addition to the test waivers specified in 40 CFR 86.1829, you may provide a statement in the application for certification, supported by engineering analysis, that vehicles comply with any of the following standards that apply instead of submitting test data:

(A) Cold temperature CO and NMHC emission standards specified in 40 CFR 86.1811.

(B) SFTP emission standards specified in 40 CFR 86.1811 and 86.1816 for all pollutants.

(C) For anything other than diesel-fueled vehicles, PM emission standards specified in 40 CFR 86.1811 and 86.1816.

(D) Any running loss, refueling, spitback, bleed emissions, and leak standards specified in 40 CFR part 86, subparts A and S.

(ii) You must perform testing and submit test data as follows to demonstrate compliance with emission standards:

(A) Exhaust and fuel economy tests. You must measure emissions over the FTP driving cycle and the highway fuel economy driving cycle as specified in 40 CFR 600.109 to meet the fuel economy requirements in 40 CFR part 600 and demonstrate compliance with the exhaust emission standards in 40 CFR part 86 (other than PM). Measure exhaust emissions and fuel economy with the same test procedures used by the original manufacturer to test the vehicle for certification. However, you must use an electric dynamometer meeting the requirements of §86.108 or 40 CFR part 1066, subpart B, unless we approve a different dynamometer based on excessive compliance costs. If you certify based on testing with a different dynamometer, you must state in the application for certification that all vehicles in the emission family will comply with emission standards if tested on an electric dynamometer.

(B) Evaporative emission test. You may measure evaporative emissions as specified in this paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(B) to demonstrate compliance with the evaporative emission standards in 40 CFR part 86 instead of the otherwise specified procedures. Use measurement equipment for evaporative measurements specified in 40 CFR part 86, subpart B, except that the evaporative emission enclosure does not need to accommodate varying ambient temperatures. The evaporative measurement procedure is integral to the procedure for measuring exhaust emissions over the FTP driving cycle as described in paragraph (a)(ii)(2)(A) of this section. Perform canister preconditioning using the same procedure used by the original manufacturer to certify the vehicle; perform this canister loading before the initial preconditioning drive. Perform a diurnal emission test at the end of the stabilization period before the exhaust emission test by heating the fuel from 60 to 84 °F, either by exposing the vehicle to increasing ambient temperatures or by applying heat directly to the fuel tank. Measure hot soak emissions as described in 40 CFR 86.138-96(k). We may approve alternative measurement procedures that are equivalent to or more stringent than the specified procedures if the specified procedures are impractical for particular vehicle models or measurement facilities. The sum of the measured diurnal and hot soak values must meet the appropriate emission standard as specified in this section.

(b) The emission standards applicable to nonconforming light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks imported pursuant to this subpart are outlined in tables 1 and 2 of this section, respectively. The useful life as specified in tables 1 and 2 of this section is applicable to imported light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks, respectively.

(c)(1) Nonconforming motor vehicles or motor vehicle engines of 1994 OP year and later conditionally imported pursuant to §85.1505 or §85.1509 shall meet all of the emission standards specified in 40 CFR part 86 for the OP year of the vehicle or motor vehicle engine. The useful life specified in 40 CFR part 86 for the OP year of the motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine is applicable where useful life is not designated in this subpart.

(2)(i) Nonconforming light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks (LDV/LLDTs) originally manufactured in OP years 2004, 2005 or 2006 must meet the FTP exhaust emission standards of bin 9 in Tables S04-1 and S04-2 in 40 CFR 86.1811-04 and the evaporative emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks specified in 40 CFR 86.1811-01(e)(5).

(ii) Nonconforming LDT3s and LDT4s (HLDTs) and medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) originally manufactured in OP years 2004 through 2006 must meet the FTP exhaust emission standards of bin 10 in Tables S04-1 and S04-2 in 40 CFR 86.1811-04 and the applicable evaporative emission standards specified in 40 CFR 86.1811-04(e)(5). For 2004 OP year HLDTs and MDPVs where modifications commence on the first vehicle of a test group before December 21, 2003, this requirement does not apply to the 2004 OP year. ICIs opting to bring all of their 2004 OP year HLDTs and MDPVs into compliance with the exhaust emission standards of bin 10 in Tables S04-1 and S04-2 in 40 CFR 86.1811-04, may use the optional higher NMOG values for their 2004-2006 OP year LDT2s and 2004-2008 LDT4s.

(iii) Nonconforming LDT3s and LDT4s (HLDTs) and medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) originally manufactured in OP years 2007 and 2008 must meet the FTP exhaust emission standards of bin 8 in Tables S04-1 and S04-2 in 40 CFR 86.1811-04 and the applicable evaporative standards specified in 40 CFR 86.1811-04(e)(5).

(iv) Nonconforming LDV/LLDTs originally manufactured in OP years 2007 through 2021 and nonconforming HLDTs and MDPVs originally manufactured in OP year 2009 through 2021 must meet the FTP exhaust emission standards of bin 5 in Tables S04-1 and S04-2 in 40 CFR 86.1811-04, and the evaporative standards specified in 40 CFR 86.1811-04(e)(1) through (4).

(v) ICIs are exempt from the Tier 2 and the interim non-Tier2 phase-in intermediate percentage requirements for exhaust, evaporative, and refueling emissions described in 40 CFR 86.1811-04.

(vi) In cases where multiple standards exist in a given model year in 40 CFR part 86 due to phase-in requirements of new standards, the applicable standards for motor vehicle engines required to be certified to engine-based standards are the least stringent standards applicable to the engine type for the OP year.

(vii) Nonconforming LDV/LLDTs originally manufactured in OP years 2009 through 2021 must meet the evaporative emission standards in Table S09-1 in 40 CFR 86.1811-09(e). However, LDV/LLDTs originally manufactured in OP years 2009 and 2010 and imported by ICIs who qualify as small-volume manufacturers as defined in 40 CFR 86.1838-01 are exempt from the LDV/LLDT evaporative emission standards in Table S09-1 in 40 CFR 86.1811-09(e), but must comply with the Tier 2 evaporative emission standards in Table S04-3 in 40 CFR 86.1811-04(e).

(viii) Nonconforming HLDTs and MDPVs originally manufactured in OP years 2010 through 2021 must meet the evaporative emission standards in Table S09-1 in 40 CFR 86.1811-09(e). However, HLDTs and MDPVs originally manufactured in OP years 2010 and 2011 and imported by ICIs, who qualify as small-volume manufacturers as defined in 40 CFR 86.1838-01, are exempt from the HLDTs and MDPVs evaporative emission standards in Table S09-1 in 40 CFR 86.1811-09(e), but must comply with the Tier 2 evaporative emission standards in Table S04-3 in 40 CFR 86.1811-04(e).

(ix) Nonconforming LDVs, LDTs, MDPVs, and complete heavy-duty vehicles at or below 14,000 pounds GVWR originally manufactured in OP years 2022 and later must meet the Tier 3 exhaust and evaporative emission standards in 40 CFR 86.1811-17, 86.1813-17, and 86.1816-18.

(3)(i) As an option to the requirements of paragraph (c)(2) of this section, independent commercial importers may elect to meet lower bins in Tables S04-1 and S04-2 of 40 CFR 86.1811-04 than specified in paragraph (c)(2) of this section and bank or sell NOX credits as permitted in 40 CFR 86.1860-04 and 40 CFR 86.1861-04. An ICI may not meet higher bins in Tables S04-1 and S04-2 of 40 CFR 86.1811-04 than specified in paragraph (c)(2) of this section unless it demonstrates to the Administrator at the time of certification that it has obtained appropriate and sufficient NOX credits from another manufacturer, or has generated them in a previous model year or in the current model year and not transferred them to another manufacturer or used them to address other vehicles as permitted in 40 CFR 86.1860-04 and 40 CFR 86.1861-04.

(ii) Where an ICI desires to obtain a certificate of conformity using a bin higher than specified in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, but does not have sufficient credits to cover vehicles produced under such certificate, the Administrator may issue such certificate if the ICI has also obtained a certificate of conformity for vehicles certified using a bin lower than that required under paragraph (c)(2) of this section. The ICI may then produce vehicles to the higher bin only to the extent that it has generated sufficient credits from vehicles certified to the lower bin during the same model year.

(4) [Reserved]

(5) Except for the situation where an ICI desires to bank, sell or use NOX credits as described in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, the requirements of 40 CFR 86.1811-04 related to fleet average NOX standards and requirements to comply with such standards do not apply to vehicles modified under this subpart.

(6) ICIs using bins higher than those specified in paragraph (c)(2) of this section must monitor their production so that they do not produce more vehicles certified to the standards of such bins than their available credits can cover. ICIs must not have a credit deficit at the end of a model year and are not permitted to use the deficit carryforward provisions provided in 40 CFR 86.1860-04(e).

(7) The Administrator may condition the certificates of conformity issued to ICIs as necessary to ensure that vehicles subject to paragraph (c) of this section comply with the appropriate average NOX standard for each model year.

(8)(i) Nonconforming LDV/LLDTs originally manufactured in OP years 2010 and later must meet the cold temperature NHMC emission standards in Table S10-1 in 40 CFR 86.1811-10(g).

(ii) Nonconforming HLDTs and MDPVs originally manufactured in OP years 2012 and later must meet the cold temperature NHMC emission standards in Table S10-1 in 40 CFR 86.1811-10(g).

(iii) ICIs, which qualify as small-volume manufacturers, are exempt from the cold temperature NMHC phase-in intermediate percentage requirements described in 40 CFR 86.1811-10(g)(3). See 40 CFR 86.1811-04(k)(5)(vi) and (vii).

(iv) As an alternative to the requirements of paragraphs (c)(8)(i) and (ii) of this section, ICIs may elect to meet a cold temperature NMHC family emission level below the cold temperature NMHC fleet average standards specified in Table S10-1 of 40 CFR 86.1811-10 and bank or sell credits as permitted in 40 CFR 86.1864-10. An ICI may not meet a higher cold temperature NMHC family emission level than the fleet average standards in Table S10-1 of 40 CFR 86.1811-10 as specified in paragraphs (c)(8)(i) and (ii) of this section, unless it demonstrates to the Administrator at the time of certification that it has obtained appropriate and sufficient NMHC credits from another manufacturer, or has generated them in a previous model year or in the current model year and not traded them to another manufacturer or used them to address other vehicles as permitted in 40 CFR 86.1864-10.

(v) Where an ICI desires to obtain a certificate of conformity using a higher cold temperature NMHC family emission level than specified in paragraphs (c)(8)(i) and (ii) of this section, but does not have sufficient credits to cover vehicles imported under such certificate, the Administrator may issue such certificate if the ICI has also obtained a certificate of conformity for vehicles certified using a cold temperature NMHC family emission level lower than that required under paragraphs (c)(8)(i) and (ii) of this section. The ICI may then import vehicles to the higher cold temperature NMHC family emission level only to the extent that it has generated sufficient credits from vehicles certified to a family emission level lower than the cold temperature NMHC fleet average standard during the same model year.

(vi) ICIs using cold temperature NMHC family emission levels higher than the cold temperature NMHC fleet average standards specified in paragraphs (c)(8)(i) and (ii) of this section must monitor their imports so that they do not import more vehicles certified to such family emission levels than their available credits can cover. ICIs must not have a credit deficit at the end of a model year and are not permitted to use the deficit carryforward provisions provided in 40 CFR 86.1864-10.

(vii) The Administrator may condition the certificates of conformity issued to ICIs as necessary to ensure that vehicles subject to this paragraph (c)(8) comply with the applicable cold temperature NMHC fleet average standard for each model year.

(d) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, ICI's must not participate in emission-related programs for emissions averaging, banking and trading, or nonconformance penalties.

Table 1 to §85.1515—Emission Standards Applicable to Imported Light-Duty Motor Vehicles123

OP YearHydrocarbonCarbon
monoxide
Oxides of
nitrogen
Diesel
particulate
Evaporative
hydrocarbon
Useful life
(years/miles)
1968-19761.5 gpm15 gpm3.1 gpm6.0 g/test5/50,000
1977-19791.5 gpm15 gpm2.0 gpm6.0 g/test5/50,000
19800.41 gpm7.0 gpm2.0 gpm6.0 g/test5/50,000
19810.41 gpm3.4 gpm1.0 gpm2.0 g/test5/50,000
1982-19860.41 gpm3.4 gpm1.0 gpm0.60 gpm2.0 g/test5/50,000
1987-19930.41 gpm3.4 gpm1.0 gpm0.20 gpm2.0 g/test5/50,000
1994 and later(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)

1Diesel particulate standards apply only to diesel fueled light-duty vehicles. Evaporative hydrocarbon standards apply only to non-diesel fueled light-duty vehicles. For alternative fueled light-duty vehicles, the evaporative hydrocarbon standard is interpreted as organic material hydrocarbon equivalent grams carbon per test, as applicable.

2No crankcase emissions shall be discharged into the ambient atmosphere from any non-diesel fueled light-duty vehicle.

3All light-duty vehicles shall meet the applicable emission standards at both low and high-altitudes according to the procedures specified in 40 CFR part 86 for current model year motor vehicles at the time of testing.

4Specified in 40 CFR part 86 for the OP year of the vehicle, as described in paragraph (c) of this section.

Table 2 to §85.1515—Emission Standards Applicable to Imported Light-Duty Trucks12345

OP YearHydrocarbonCarbon
monoxide
Oxides of
nitrogen
Diesel
particulate
Evaporative
hydrocarbon
Useful life
(years/miles)
1968-782.0 gpm20 gpm3.1 gpm6.0 g/test5/50,000
1979-801.7 gpm18 gpm2.3 gpm6.0 g/test5/50,000
19811.7 gpm18 gpm2.3 gpm2.0 g/test5/50,000
1982-19831.7 gpm
(2.0)
18 gpm
(26)
2.3 gpm
(2.3)
0.60 gpm
(0.60)
2.0 g/test
(2.6)
5/50,000
19840.80 gpm
(1.0)
10 gpm
(14)
2.3 gpm
(2.3)
0.60 gpm
(0.60)
2.0 g/test
(2.6)
5/50,000
1985-19860.80 gpm
(1.0)
10 gpm
(14)
2.3 gpm
(2.3)
0.60 gpm
(0.60)
2.0 g/test
(2.6)
11/120,000
19870.80 gpm
(1.0)
10 gpm
(14)
2.3 gpm
(2.3)
0.26 gpm
(0.26)
2.0 g/test
(2.6)
11/120,000
1988-19890.80 gpm
(1.0)
10 gpm
(14)
1.2 gpm6
(1.2)
0.26 gpm7
(2.0)
2.0 g/test
(2.6)
11/120,000
1988-19890.80 gpm
(1.0)
10 gpm
(14)
1.7 gpm6
(1.7)
0.45 gpm7
(0.26)
2.0 g/test
(2.6)
11/120,000
1988-19890.80 gpm
(1.0)
10 gpm
(14)
2.3 gpm6
(2.3)
0.45 gpm7
(0.26)
2.0 g/test
(2.6)
11/120,000
1990-19930.80 gpm
(1.0)
10 gpm
(14)
1.2 gpm8
(1.2)
0.26 gpm7
(0.26)
2.0 g/test
(2.6)
11/120,000
1990-19930.80 gpm
(1.0)
10 gpm
(14)
1.7 gpm8
(1.7)
0.45 gpm7
(0.26)
2.0 g/test
(2.6)
11/120,000
1994 and later(9)(9)(9)(9)(9)(9)

1Diesel particulate standards apply only to diesel fueled light-duty trucks. Evaporative hydrocarbon standards apply only to non-diesel fueled light-duty trucks. For alternative fueled light-duty trucks, the evaporative hydrocarbon standard is interpreted as organic material hydrocarbon equivalent grams carbon per test, as applicable.

2No crankcase emissions shall be discharged into the ambient atmosphere from any non-diesel fueled light-duty truck.

3A carbon monoxide standard of 0.50% of exhaust flow at curb idle is applicable to all 1984 and later model year light-duty trucks sold to, or owned by, an importer for principal use at other than a designated high-altitude location. This requirement is effective for light-duty trucks sold to, or owned by an importer for principal use at a designated high-altitude location beginning with the 1988 model year.

4All 1982 OP year and later light-duty trucks sold to, or owned by, an importer for principal use at a designated high-altitude location shall meet high-altitude emission standards according to the requirements specified in 40 CFR part 86 for current model year light-duty trucks at the time of testing.

5Standards in parentheses apply to motor vehicles sold to, or owned by, an importer for principal use at a designated high-altitude location. These standards must be met at high-altitude according to the procedures specified in 40 CFR part 86 for current model year motor vehicles at the time of testing.

6The oxides of nitrogen standard of 1.2 gpm applies to light-duty trucks at or below 3,750 pounds loaded vehicle weight and at or below 6,000 pounds GVWR. The 1.7 gpm standard applies to light-duty trucks above 3,750 pound loaded vehicle weight and at or below 6,000 pounds GVWR; the 2.3 gpm standard applies to light-duty trucks above 6,000 pounds GVWR.

7The diesel particulate standard of 0.26 gpm applies to light-duty trucks at or below 3,750 pounds loaded vehicle weight; the 0.45 gpm standard applies to light-duty trucks above 3,750 pounds loaded vehicle weight.

8The NOX standard of 1.2 gpm applies to light-duty trucks at or below 3,750 pounds loaded vehicle weight; the 1.7 gpm standard applies to light-duty trucks above 3,750 pounds loaded vehicle weight.

9Specified in 40 CFR part 86 for the OP year of the vehicle, as described in paragraph (c) of this section.

[79 FR 23681, Apr. 28, 2014]


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