Title 32 Part 245 → Subpart C
Title 32 → Subtitle A → Chapter I → Subchapter M → Part 245 → Subpart C
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR
Title 32 Part 245 → Subpart C
This part establishes responsibilities, procedures, and instructions for the security control of civil and military air traffic in order to provide effective use of airspace under various emergency conditions.
(a) E.O. 12656, 18 November 1988, which assigns emergency preparedness functions to Federal departments and agencies.
(b) E.O. 13074, Amendment to E.O. 12656, February 9, 1998.
(c) E.O. 13286, Amendment of E.O. 13276, 13274, 13271, 13260, 13257, 13254, and 13231, and Other Actions, in Connection With the Transfer of Certain Functions to the Secretary of Homeland Security, February 28, 2003.
(d) Title 10 U.S.C.—Armed Forces.
(e) Title 49 U.S.C., Subtitle VII—Aviation Programs.
(f) Communications Act of 1934, as amended.
(g) Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001 (Pub. L. 107-71), establishes the TSA and transfers civil aviation security responsibilities from FAA to TSA.
(h) Homeland Security Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-296), establishes DHS and transfers the transportation security functions of the DOT and Secretary of Transportation and the TSA to DHS.
(i) DoD Directive 5030.19,1 “DoD Responsibilities on Federal Aviation and National Airspace System Matters,” outlines DoD/ NORAD responsibilities for the development of plans and policies in concert with the DOT, FAA and USCG for the establishment of a system for identification and emergency security control of air traffic.
1Copies may be obtained at http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/dir2.html.
This part applies to all U.S. territorial airspace and other airspace over which the FAA has air traffic control jurisdiction by international agreement.
§245.11 General description of the ESCAT plan.
The part defines the authorities, responsibilities, and procedures to identify and control air traffic within a specified air defense area during air defense emergencies, defense emergency, or national emergency conditions.
(a) For the purpose of this part, the appropriate military authorities are as follows:
(1) Contiguous 48 U.S. states, including Washington, DC; Alaska; and Canada—Commander NORAD or individual NORAD Region/Sector commanders.
(2) Hawaii, Guam, Wake Island, other U.S. Pacific Territories, and Pacific oceanic airspace over which FAA has air traffic control jurisdiction by international agreement—Commander, U.S. Pacific Command (USPACOM) or designated AADC.
(3) Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands—Commander, NORAD.
(b) This part provides for security control of both civil and military air traffic. It is intended to meet threat situations such as:
(1) An emergency resulting in the declaration of an Air Defense Emergency by the appropriate military authority. Under this condition, NORAD and USPACOM Commanders have authority to implement ESCAT and may consider executing this part.
(2) An adjacent Combatant Command is under attack and an Air Defense Emergency has not yet been declared. Under these conditions, NORAD and USPACOM Commanders may direct implementation of ESCAT for their own AORs individually, if airspace control measures are warranted and agreed upon by DoD/DHS/DOT.
(3) Emergency conditions exist that either threaten national security or national interests vital to the U.S., but do not warrant declaration of Defense Emergency or Air Defense Emergency. Under these conditions, NORAD and USPACOM Commanders may direct implementation of ESCAT for their own AORs individually, if airspace control measures are warranted and agreed upon by DoD/DHS/DOT.
§245.12 Amplifying instructions.
(a) Prior to any formal ESCAT implementation, the appropriate military authority will consult with DOT through the FAA Administrator and DHS through the TSA Administrator to discuss the air traffic management, airspace and/or security measures required. Every effort will be made to obtain the approval of the Secretary of Defense prior to ESCAT declaration, time and circumstance permitting. Any ESCAT implementation will be passed as soon as possible through the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the Secretary of Defense.
(b) ESCAT may be implemented in phases to facilitate a smooth transition from normal air traffic identification and control procedures to the more restrictive identification and control procedures specific to the situation.
(c) Once ESCAT is implemented, the appropriate military authority will consult regularly with DOT (through the FAA Administrator) and DHS (through the TSA Administrator) as appropriate, regarding any changes in the air traffic management, airspace, and/or security measures required.
(d) Interference with normal air traffic should be minimized.
(e) The process for implementation of measures for mitigation of hostile use of NAVAID signals, when required, will be subject to separate agreement between DoD and other Departments and Agencies.
(f) Upon the formal declaration of ESCAT, the appropriate military authority has the final authority regarding the extent of measures necessary for successful mission completion.
(g) The rules/procedures governing Special Use Airspace (SUA) will remain in effect until notified by the appropriate military authority. The appropriate military authority will address SUA use in the ESCAT activation message.
(h) Appropriate Combatant Commanders, in conjunction with their FAA and TSA Liaisons, will prepare supplements to this part for their area of responsibility. These supplements are to consider the special requirement of organized civil defense and disaster relief flights, agricultural and forest fire flights, border patrol flights, and other essential civil air operations so that maximum use of these flights, consistent with air defense requirements, will be made when ESCAT is in effect.
(i) Flight operations vital to national defense, as determined by appropriate military commanders, will be given priority over all other military and civil aircraft.
(j) Prior to or subsequent to the declaration of an Air Defense Emergency, Defense Emergency, or National Emergency, there may be a requirement to disperse military aircraft for their protection. If such dispersal plans are implemented when any part of this part has been placed in effect, operations will be in accordance with the requirements of that portion of the ESCAT plan that is in effect. If any part of the ESCAT plan is ordered while dispersal is in progress, dispersal operations will be revised as required to comply with ESCAT.
(k) Direct communications are authorized between appropriate agencies and units for the purpose of coordinating and implementing the procedures in this part.
(l) To ensure implementation actions can be taken expeditiously, ESCAT tests will be conducted periodically, but at least annually in accordance with §245.31 of this part.
(m) The area of responsibility of the appropriate military authority does not always align with ARTCC boundaries, especially in the NORAD area where one ARTCC's boundaries may lie within two or more CONUS NORAD Sectors. For NORAD and USPACOM, the FAA ARTCCs/CERAPs are aligned as follows:
|CONR South East Air Defense Sector (SEADS)||Atlanta, Fort Worth, Houston, Indianapolis, Jacksonville, Kansas City, Memphis, Miami, Washington, San Juan CERAP.|
|CONR North East Air Defense Sector (NEADS)||Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Minneapolis, New York, Indianapolis, Kansas City, Atlanta, Memphis, Washington.|
|CONR Western Air Defense Sector (WADS)||Albuquerque, Denver, Los Angeles, Oakland, Salt Lake City, Seattle, Fort Worth, Houston, Kansas City, Minneapolis.|
|ANR (Alaskan NORAD Region)||Anchorage.|
|PACOM||Honolulu CERAP, Oakland, Anchorage.|
(n) Commander NORAD, acting for the DoD, will process and distribute administrative and organizational changes as they occur; however, this part will be reviewed at least once every two years by DHS/TSA, DOT/FAA, and DoD and reissued or changed as required. Recommended changes should be forwarded to: Headquarters North American Air Defense Command, Commander NORAD/J3, ATTN: NJ33C, 250 Vandenberg Street, Suite B106, Peterson AFB, CO 80914-3818.
(a) The NORAD and USPACOM Commanders will:
(1) Establish the military requirements for ESCAT.
(2) Implement the plan as appropriate by declaring ESCAT (including the timing and scope) within their AOR.
(3) Terminate the plan as appropriate by discontinuing ESCAT (including the timing and scope) within their AOR.
(4) Coordinate with the Secretary of Defense or his designee, the CJCS, other Combatant Commands, the Department of Transportation, the Department of Homeland Security and the Canadian Minister of National Defence, as appropriate, regarding procedures for ESCAT implementation.
(b) The DOT (through the FAA Administrator) will:
(1) Establish the necessary FAA directives/plans including special ATC procedures to implement this part.
(2) Maintain liaison with Combatant Commands whose AORs include FAA areas of authority through the appropriate LNO, or FAA ADLO offices.
(3) Administer this part in accordance with established requirements.
(4) Ensure authorized FAA ADLO positions at NORAD facilities are staffed.
(5) Publish a common use document describing ESCAT and its purpose for use by civil aviation.
(6) Ensure FAA participation with the Combatant Commands in the testing of this part.
(7) Ensure the FAA Air Traffic Organization Service Units will:
(i) Disseminate information and instructions implementing this part within their AORs.
(ii) Place in effect procedures outlined in this part.
(iii) Assist appropriate military authorities in making supplemental agreements to this part as may be required.
(iv) Ensure each ARTCC/CERAP has a plan for diverting or landing expeditiously all aircraft according to the ESCAT priorities imposed upon implementation of ESCAT. Ensure a review and verification of the diversion plan is accomplished each calendar year.
(8) Ensure the ATCSCC/ARTCC/CERAPs will:
(i) Participate with Combatant Commanders in the training/testing of this part at all operational level.
(ii) Ensure dissemination of information and instructions implementing this part within their AORs.
(iii) Place in effect procedures outlined in this part.
(iv) Develop a plan for diverting or landing expeditiously all aircraft according to the ESCAT priorities imposed upon implementation of ESCAT. Review the diversion plan each calendar year.
(c) The DHS (through the TSA Administrator) will:
(1) Establish the necessary TSA directives/plans including special security procedures to implement this part.
(2) Maintain liaison with Combatant Commands whose AORs include TSA geographic areas of authority through the appropriate Federal Security Directors or other field offices.
(3) Administer this part in accordance with established requirements.
(4) Ensure authorized TSA liaison positions at NORAD facilities are staffed.
(5) Issue security directives describing ESCAT and its purpose for use by airport and aircraft operators.
(6) Ensure TSA participation with the Combatant Commands in the testing of this part.
(7) Ensure TSA Federal Security Directors and field offices:
(i) Disseminate information and instructions implementing this part within their AOR.
(ii) Implement procedures outlined in this part.
(iii) Assist appropriate military authorities in making supplemental agreements to this part, as necessary.
(d) The Commanders of Combatant Commands will:
(1) Ensure that departing North American strategic flights are coordinated with appropriate NORAD and FAA/NAVCANADA authorities.
(2) Ensure training/testing of this part at all levels within their command, as appropriate.