Title 32 Part 159
Title 32 → Subtitle A → Chapter I → Subchapter F → Part 159
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR
Title 32 Part 159
PART 159—PRIVATE SECURITY CONTRACTORS OPERATING IN CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS
§159.2 Applicability and scope.
Authority: Pub. L. 110-181; Pub. L. 110-417.
Source: 76 FR 49655, Aug. 11, 2011, unless otherwise noted.
This part establishes policy, assigns responsibilities and provides procedures for the regulation of the selection, accountability, training, equipping, and conduct of personnel performing private security functions under a covered contract. It also assigns responsibilities and establishes procedures for incident reporting, use of and accountability for equipment, rules for the use of force, and a process for administrative action or the removal, as appropriate, of PSCs and PSC personnel.
§159.2 Applicability and scope.
(a) Applies to:
(1) The Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Military Departments, the Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Joint Staff, the Combatant Commands, the Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Defense, the Defense Agencies, the DoD Field Activities, and all other organizational entities in the Department of Defense (hereafter referred to as the “DoD Components”).
(2) The Department of State and other U.S. Federal agencies insofar as it implements the requirements of section 862 of Public Law 110-181, as amended. Specifically, in areas of operations which require enhanced coordination of PSC and PSC personnel working for U.S. Government (U.S.G.) agencies, the Secretary of Defense may designate such areas as areas of combat operations or other significant military operations for the limited purposes of this part. In such an instance, the standards established in accordance with this part would, in coordination with the Secretary of State, expand from covering only DoD PSCs and PSC personnel to cover all U.S.G.-funded PSCs and PSC personnel operating in the designated area. The requirements of this part shall not apply to a nonprofit nongovernmental organization receiving grants or cooperative agreements for activities conducted within an area of other significant military operations if the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of State agree that such organization may be exempted. An exemption may be granted by the agreement of the Secretaries under this paragraph on an organization-by-organization or area-by-area basis. Such an exemption may not be granted with respect to an area of combat operations.
(b) Prescribes policies applicable to all:
(1) DoD PSCs and PSC personnel performing private security functions during contingency operations outside the United States.
(2) USG-funded PSCs and PSC personnel performing private security functions in an area of combat operations or, with the agreement of the Secretary of State, other significant military operations as designated by the Secretary of Defense.
Unless otherwise noted, these terms and their definitions are for the purpose of this part.
Area of combat operations. An area of operations designated as such by the Secretary of Defense for the purpose of this part, when enhanced coordination of PSCs working for U.S.G. agencies is required.
Contingency operation. A military operation that is either designated by the Secretary of Defense as a contingency operation or becomes a contingency operation as a matter of law (10 U.S.C. 101(a)(13)). It is a military operation that:
(1) Is designated by the Secretary of Defense as an operation in which members of the Armed Forces are or may become involved in military actions, operations, or hostilities against an enemy of the United States or against an opposing military force; or
(2) Results in the call or order to, or retention on, active duty of members of the uniformed services under section 688, 12301(a), 12302, 12304, 12305, 12406, of 10 U.S.C., chapter 15 of 10 U.S.C. or any other provision of law during a war or during a national emergency declared by the President or Congress.
Contractor. The contractor, subcontractor, grantee, or other party carrying out the covered contract.
Covered contract. (1) A DoD contract for performance of services and/or delivery of supplies in an area of contingency operations outside the United States or a contract of a non-DoD Federal agency for performance of services and/or delivery of supplies in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations, as designated by the Secretary of Defense; a subcontract at any tier under such a contract; or a task order or delivery order issued under such a contract or subcontract.
(2) Also includes contracts or subcontracts funded under grants and sub-grants by a Federal agency for performance in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations as designated by the Secretary of Defense.
(3) Excludes temporary arrangements entered into by non-DoD contractors or grantees for the performance of private security functions by individual indigenous personnel not affiliated with a local or expatriate security company. Such arrangements must still be in compliance with local law.
Other significant military operations. For purposes of this part, the term ‘other significant military operations‘ means activities, other than combat operations, as part of an overseas contingency operation that are carried out by United States Armed Forces in an uncontrolled or unpredictable high-threat environment where personnel performing security functions may be called upon to use deadly force.1
1With respect to an area of other significant military operations, the requirements of this part shall apply only upon agreement of the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of State. Such an agreement of the Secretaries may be made only on an area-by-area basis. With respect to an area of combat operations, the requirements of this part shall always apply.
Private security functions. Activities engaged in by a contractor under a covered contract as follows:
(1) Guarding of personnel, facilities, designated sites, or property of a Federal agency, the contractor or subcontractor, or a third party.2
2Contractors performing private security functions are not authorized to perform inherently governmental functions. In this regard, they are limited to a defensive response to hostile acts or demonstrated hostile intent.
(2) Any other activity for which personnel are required to carry weapons in the performance of their duties in accordance with the terms of their contract. For the DoD, DoDI Instruction 3020.41, “Contractor Personnel Authorized to Accompany the U.S. Armed Forces,”3 prescribes policies related to personnel allowed to carry weapons for self defense.
3Available at http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/302041p.pdf.
PSC. During contingency operations “PSC” means a company employed by the DoD performing private security functions under a covered contract. In a designated area of combat operations or other significant military operations, the term “PSC” expands to include all companies employed by U.S.G. agencies performing private security functions under a covered contract.
PSC personnel. Any individual performing private security functions under a covered contract.
(a) Consistent with the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of section 862 of Public Law 110-181, the selection, training, equipping, and conduct of PSC personnel including the establishment of appropriate processes shall be coordinated between the DoD and the Department of State. Coordination shall encompass the contemplated use of PSC personnel during the planning stages of contingency operations so as to allow guidance to be developed under paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section and promulgated under section 159.5 of this part in a timely manner that is appropriate for the needs of the contingency operation.
(b) Geographic Combatant Commanders will provide tailored PSC guidance and procedures for the operational environment in their Area of Responsibility (AOR) in accordance with this part, the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR)4 and the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS).5
4Published in Title 48 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
5Published in Title 48 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
(c) In a designated area of combat operations or other significant military operations, the relevant Chief of Mission will be responsible for developing and issuing implementing instructions for non-DoD PSCs and their personnel consistent with the standards set forth by the geographic Combatant Commander in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section. The Chief of Mission has the option to instruct non-DoD PSCs and their personnel to follow the guidance and procedures developed by the geographic Combatant Commander and/or a sub unified commander or joint force commander (JFC) where specifically authorized by the Combatant Commander to do so and notice of that authorization is provided to non-DoD agencies.
(d) The requirements of this part shall not apply to contracts entered into by elements of the intelligence community in support of intelligence activities.
(a) The Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Program Support, under the authority, direction, and control of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Logistics and Materiel Readiness, shall monitor the registering, processing, and accounting of PSC personnel in an area of contingency operations.
(b) The Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy, under the authority, direction, and control of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, shall ensure that the DFARS and (in consultation with the other members of the FAR Council) the FAR provide appropriate guidance and contract clauses consistent with this part and paragraph (b) of section 862 of Public Law 110-181.
(c) The Deputy Chief Management Officer of the Department of Defense shall direct the appropriate component to ensure that information systems effectively support the accountability and visibility of contracts, contractors, and specified equipment associated with private security functions.
(d) The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff shall ensure that joint doctrine is consistent with the principles established by DoD Directive 3020.49, “Orchestrating, Synchronizing, and Integrating Program Management of Contingency Acquisition Planning and Its Operational Execution,”6 DoD Instruction 3020.41, “Contractor Personnel Authorized to Accompany the U.S. Armed Forces,” and this part.
6Available from http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/302040p.pdf.
(e) The geographic Combatant Commanders in whose AOR a contingency operation is occurring, and within which PSCs and PSC personnel perform under covered contracts, shall:
(1) Provide guidance and procedures, as necessary and consistent with the principles established by DoD Directive 3020.49, “Orchestrating, Synchronizing, and Integrating Program Management of Contingency Acquisition Planning and Its Operational Execution,” DoD Instruction 3020.41, “Contractor Personnel Authorized to Accompany the U.S. Armed Forces,”7 and this part, for the selection, training, accountability and equipping of such PSC personnel and the conduct of PSCs and PSC personnel within their AOR. Individual training and qualification standards shall meet, at a minimum, one of the Military Departments' established standards. Within a geographic combatant command, a sub unified commander or JFC shall be responsible for developing and issuing implementing procedures as warranted by the situation, operation, and environment, in consultation with the relevant Chief of Mission in designated areas of combat operations or other significant military operations.
7Available at http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/html/302041.htm.
(2) Through the Contracting Officer, ensure that PSC personnel acknowledge, through their PSC, their understanding and obligation to comply with the terms and conditions of their covered contracts.
(3) Issue written authorization to the PSC identifying individual PSC personnel who are authorized to be armed. Rules for the Use of Force shall be included with the written authorization, if not previously provided to the contractor in the solicitation or during the course of contract administration. Rules for the Use of Force shall conform to the guidance in the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction 3121.01B, “Standing Rules of Engagement/Standing Rules for the Use of Force for U.S. Forces.” Access by offerors and contractors to the rules for the use of force may be controlled in accordance with the terms of FAR 52.204-2 (Aug 1996), DFARS 252.204-7000 (Dec 1991), or both.8
8CJCSI 3121.01B provides guidance on the standing rules of engagement (SROE) and establishes standing rules for the use of force (SRUF) for DOD operations worldwide. This document is classified secret. CJCSI 3121.01B is available via Secure Internet Protocol Router Network at http://js.smil.mil. If the requester is not an authorized user of the classified network, the requester should contact Joint Staff J-3 at 703-614-0425.
(4) Ensure that the procedures, orders, directives and instructions prescribed in §159.6(a) of this part are available through a single location (to include an Internet Web site, consistent with security considerations and requirements).
(f) The Heads of the DoD Components shall:
(1) Ensure that all private security-related requirement documents are in compliance with the procedures listed in §159.6 of this part and the guidance and procedures issued by the geographic Combatant Command,
(2) Ensure private security-related contracts contain the appropriate clauses in accordance with the applicable FAR clause and include additional mission-specific requirements as appropriate.
(a) Standing Combatant Command Guidance and Procedures. Each geographic Combatant Commander shall develop and publish guidance and procedures for PSCs and PSC personnel operating during a contingency operation within their AOR, consistent with applicable law; this part; applicable Military Department publications; and other applicable DoD issuances to include DoD Directive 3020.49, “Orchestrating, Synchronizing, and Integrating Program Management of Contingency Acquisition Planning and Its Operational Execution,” DFARS, DoD Directive 2311.01E, “DoD Law of War Program,”9 DoD 5200.8-R, “Physical Security Program,”10 CJCSI 3121.01B, “Standing Rules of Engagement/Standing Rules for the Use of Force for U.S. Forces,” and DoD Directive 5210.56, “Use of Deadly Force and the Carrying of Firearms by DoD Personnel Engaged in Law Enforcement and Security Duties.”11 The guidance and procedures shall:
9Available at http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/html/231101.htm.
10Available at http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/520008r.pdf.
11Available at http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/html/521056.htm.
(1) Contain, at a minimum, procedures to implement the following processes, and identify the organization responsible for managing these processes:
(i) Registering, processing, accounting for and keeping appropriate records of PSCs and PSC personnel in accordance with DoD Instruction 3020.41, “Contractor Personnel Authorized to Accompany the U.S. Armed Forces.”
(ii) PSC verification that PSC personnel meet all the legal, training, and qualification requirements for authorization to carry a weapon in accordance with the terms and conditions of their contract and host country law. Weapons accountability procedures will be established and approved prior to the weapons authorization.
(iii) Arming of PSC personnel. Requests for permission to arm PSC personnel shall be reviewed on a case-by-case basis by the appropriate Staff Judge Advocate to the geographic Combatant Commander (or a designee) to ensure there is a legal basis for approval. The request will then be approved or denied by the geographic Combatant Commander or a specifically identified designee, no lower than the flag officer level. Requests to arm non-DOD PSC personnel shall be reviewed and approved in accordance with §159.4(c) of this part. Requests for permission to arm all PSC personnel shall include:
(A) A description of where PSC personnel will operate, the anticipated threat, and what property or personnel such personnel are intended to protect, if any.
(B) A description of how the movement of PSC personnel will be coordinated through areas of increased risk or planned or ongoing military operations, including how PSC personnel will be rapidly identified by members of the U.S. Armed Forces.
(C) A communication plan, to include a description of how relevant threat information will be shared between PSC personnel and U.S. military forces and how appropriate assistance will be provided to PSC personnel who become engaged in hostile situations. DoD contractors performing private security functions are only to be used in accordance with DoD Instruction 1100.22, “Guidance for Determining Workforce Mix,”12 that is, they are limited to a defensive response to hostile acts or demonstrated hostile intent.
12Available at http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/110022p.pdf.
(D) Documentation of individual training covering weapons familiarization and qualification, rules for the use of force, limits on the use of force including whether defense of others is consistent with host nation Status of Forces Agreements or local law, the distinction between the rules of engagement applicable to military forces and the prescribed rules for the use of force that control the use of weapons by civilians, and the Law of Armed Conflict.
(E) Written acknowledgment by the PSC and its individual PSC personnel, after investigation of background of PSC personnel by the contractor, verifying such personnel are not prohibited under U.S. law to possess firearms.
(F) Written acknowledgment by the PSC and individual PSC personnel that:
(1) Inappropriate use of force by contractor personnel authorized to accompany the U.S. Armed Forces may subject such personnel to United States or host nation prosecution and civil liability.13
13This requirement is specific to arming procedures. Such written acknowledgement should not be construed to limit potential civil and criminal liability to conduct arising from “the use of weapons.” For example, PSC personnel could be held criminally liable for any conduct that would constitute a Federal offense (see MEJA, 18 U.S.C. 3261(a)).
(2) Proof of authorization to be armed must be carried by each PSC personnel.
(3) PSC personnel may possess only U.S.G.-issued and/or -approved weapons and ammunition for which they have been qualified according to paragraph (a)(1)(iii)(E) of this section.
(4) PSC personnel were briefed about and understand limitations on the use of force.
(5) Authorization to possess weapons and ammunition may be revoked for non-compliance with established rules for the use of force.
(6) PSC personnel are prohibited from consuming alcoholic beverages or being under the influence of alcohol while armed.
(iv) Registration and identification in the Synchronized Predeployment and Operational Tracker (or its successor database) of armored vehicles, helicopters, and other vehicles operated by PSC personnel.
(v) Reporting alleged criminal activity or other incidents involving PSCs or PSC personnel by another company or any other person. All incidents involving the following shall be reported and documented:
(A) A weapon is discharged by an individual performing private security functions;
(B) An individual performing private security functions is killed or injured in the performance of their duties;
(C) A person other than an individual performing private security functions is killed or injured as a result of conduct by PSC personnel;
(D) Property is destroyed as a result of conduct by a PSC or PSC personnel;
(E) An individual performing private security functions has come under attack including in cases where a weapon is discharged against an individual performing private security functions or personnel performing such functions believe a weapon was so discharged; or
(F) Active, non-lethal counter-measures (other than the discharge of a weapon) are employed by PSC personnel in response to a perceived immediate threat in an incident that could significantly affect U.S. objectives with regard to the military mission or international relations. (Active non-lethal systems include laser optical distracters, acoustic hailing devices, electro-muscular TASER guns, blunt-trauma devices like rubber balls and sponge grenades, and a variety of riot-control agents and delivery systems).
(vi) The independent review and, if practicable, investigation of incidents reported pursuant to paragraphs (a)(1)(v)(A) through (a)(1)(v)(F) of this section and incidents of alleged misconduct by PSC personnel.
(vii) Identification of ultimate criminal jurisdiction and investigative responsibilities, where conduct of U.S.G.-funded PSCs or PSC personnel are in question, in accordance with applicable laws to include a recognition of investigative jurisdiction and coordination for joint investigations (i.e., other U.S.G. agencies, host nation, or third country agencies), where the conduct of PSCs and PSC personnel is in question.
(viii) A mechanism by which a commander of a combatant command may request an action by which PSC personnel who are non-compliant with contract requirements are removed from the designated operational area.
(ix) Interagency coordination of administrative penalties or removal, as appropriate, of non-DoD PSC personnel who fail to comply with the terms and conditions of their contract, as they relate to this part.
(x) Implementation of the training requirements contained below in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section.
(2) Specifically cover:
(i) Matters relating to authorized equipment, force protection, security, health, safety, and relations and interaction with locals in accordance with DoD Instruction 3020.41, “Contractor Personnel Authorized to Accompany the U.S. Armed Forces.”
(ii) Predeployment training requirements addressing, at a minimum, the identification of resources and assistance available to PSC personnel as well as country information and cultural training, and guidance on working with host country nationals and military personnel.
(iii) Rules for the use of force and graduated force procedures.
(iv) Requirements and procedures for direction, control and the maintenance of communications with regard to the movement and coordination of PSCs and PSC personnel, including specifying interoperability requirements. These include coordinating with the Chief of Mission, as necessary, private security operations outside secure bases and U.S. diplomatic properties to include movement control procedures for all contractors, including PSC personnel.
(b) Availability of Guidance and Procedures. The geographic Combatant Commander shall ensure the guidance and procedures prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section are readily available and accessible by PSCs and their personnel (e.g., on a Web page and/or through contract terms), consistent with security considerations and requirements.
(c) Subordinate Guidance and Procedures. A sub unified commander or JFC, in consultation with the Chief of Mission, will issue guidance and procedures implementing the standing combatant command publications specified in paragraph (a) of this section, consistent with the situation and operating environment.
(d) Consultation and Coordination. The Chief of Mission and the geographic Combatant Commander/sub unified commander or JFC shall make every effort to consult and coordinate responses to common threats and common concerns related to oversight of the conduct of U.S.G.-funded PSCs and their personnel.