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Title 26 Part 1 → §1.503(e)-2

Title 26 → Chapter I → Subchapter A → Part 1 → §1.503(e)-2

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 26 Part 1 → §1.503(e)-2

e-CFR data is current as of November 8, 2019

Title 26Chapter ISubchapter APart 1 → §1.503(e)-2


Title 26: Internal Revenue
PART 1—INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED)


§1.503(e)-2   Requirements.

(a) In general. The requirements which must be met under section 503(e) for an obligation not to be treated as a loan made without the receipt of adequate security for purposes of section 503(b)(1) are described in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section. For purposes of this section, the term employee trust shall mean any of the three kinds of organizations described in section 503(a)(1).

(b) Methods of acquisition—(1) In general. The employee trust must acquire the obligation of the market, by purchase from an underwriter, or by purchase from the issuer, in the manner described in subparagraph (2), (3), or (4) of this paragraph.

(2) On the market. (i) An obligation is acquired on the market when it is purchased through a national securities exchange which is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or when it is purchased in an over-the-counter transaction. For purposes of the preceding sentence, securities purchased through an exchange which is not a national securities exchange registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission shall be treated as securities purchased in an over-the-counter transaction.

(ii)(a) If the obligation is listed on a national securities exchange registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission, it must be purchased through such an exchange or in an over-the-counter transaction at a price not greater than the price of the obligation prevailing on such an exchange at the time of the purchase by the employee trust.

(b) For purposes of section 503(e), the price of the obligation prevailing at the time of the purchase means the price which accurately reflects the market value of the obligation. In the case of an obligation purchased through a national securities exchange which is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission, the price paid for the obligation will be considered the prevailing price of the obligation. In the case of an obligation purchased in an over-the-counter transaction, the prevailing price may be the price at which the last sale of the obligation was affected on such national securities exchange immediately before the employee trust's purchase of such obligation on the same day or may be the mean between the highest and lowest prices at which sales were effected on such exchange on the same day or on the immediately preceding day or on the last day during which there were sales of such obligation or may be a price determined by any other method which accurately reflects the market value of the obligation.

(iii)(a) If the obligation is not listed on a national securities exchange which is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission, it must be purchased in an over-the-counter transaction at a price not greater than the offering price for the obligation as established by current bid and asked prices quoted by persons independent of the issuer.

(b) For purposes of section 503(e) the offering price for the obligation at the time of the purchase means the price which accurately reflects the market value of the obligation. The offering price may be the price at which the last sale of the obligation to a person independent of the issuer was effected immediately before the employee trust's purchase of such obligation on the same day or may be the mean between the highest and lowest prices at which sales to persons independent of the issuer were effected on the same day or on the last day during which they were sales of such obligation or may be a price determinated by any other method which accurately reflects the market value of the obligation. The offering price for an obligation must be a valid price for the amount of the obligations which the trust is purchasing. For example, if an employees' trust described in section 503(a)(1)(B) purchases 1,000 bonds of the employer corporation at the offering price established by current prices for a lot of 10 such bonds, such offering price may not be a valid price for 1,000 bonds and the purchase may therefore not meet the requirements of this subdivision. For a purchase of an obligation to qualify under this subdivision, there must be sufficient current prices quoted by persons independent of the issuer to establish accurately the current value of the obligation. Thus, if there are no current prices quoted by persons independent of the issuer, an over-the-counter transaction will not qualify under this subparagraph even though the obligation was purchased in an arms's length transaction from a person independent of the issuer.

(iv) For purposes of this section, an over-the-counter transaction is one not executed on a national securities exchange which is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission. An over-the-counter transaction may be made through a dealer or an exchange which is not such a national securities exchange or may be made directly from the seller to the purchaser.

(3) From an underwriter. An obligation may be purchased from an underwriter if it is purchased at a price not greater than:

(i) The public offering price for the obligation as set forth in a prospectus or offering circular filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or

(ii) The price at which a substantial portion of the issue including such obligation is acquired by persons independent of the issuer

whichever is the lesser price. For purposes of this subparagraph, a portion of the issue will be considered substantial if the purchasers of such portion by persons independent of the issuer are sufficient to establish that fair market value of the obligations included in such issue. In determining whether the purchases are sufficient to establish the fair market value, all the surrounding facts and circumstances will be considered, including the number of independent purchasers, the aggregate amount purchased by each such independent purchaser, and the number of transactions. In the case of a large issue, purchases of a small percentage of the outstanding obligations may be considered purchases of a substantial portion of the issue; whereas, in the case of a small issue, purchases of a larger percentage of the outstanding obligations will ordinarily be required. The requirement in paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section contemplates purchase of the obligations by persons independent of the issuer contemporaneously with the purchase by the employee trust. If a substantial portion has been purchased at different prices, the price of the portion may be based on the average of such prices, and if several substantial portions have been sold to persons independent of the issuer, the price of any of the substantial portions may be used for pusposes of this subparagraph.

(4) From the issuer. An obligation may be purchased directly from the issuer at a price not greater than the price paid currently for a substantial portion of the same issue by persons independent of the issuer. This requirement contemplates purchase of a substantial portion of the same issue by persons independent of the issuer contemporaneously with the purchase by the employee trust. For purposes of this subparagraph, a portion of the issue will be considered substantial if the purchases of such portion by persons independent of the issuer are sufficient to establish the fair market value of the obligations included in such issue. In determining whether the purchases are sufficient to establish the fair market value, all the surrounding facts and circumstances will be considered, including the number of independent purchasers, the aggregage amount purchased by each such independent purchaser, and the number of transactions. In the case of a large issue, purchases of a small percentage of the outstanding obligations may be considered purchases of a substantial portion of the issue; whereas, in the case of a small issue, purchases of a larger percentage of the outstanding obligations will ordinarily be required. The price paid for a substantial portion of the issue may be determined in the manner privided in paragraph (b)(3) of this section.

(c) Limitations on holdings of obligations. (1) Immediately following acquisition of the obligation by the employee trust:

(i) Not more than 25 percent of the aggregate amount of the obligations issued in such issue and outstanding immediately after acquisition by the trust may be held by the trust, and

(ii) At least 50 percent of such aggregate amount must be held by persons independent of the issuer.

(2)(i) For purposes of paragraph (c)(1) of this section, an obligation is not considered as outstanding if it is held by the issuer. For example, if an obligation which has been issued and outstanding is repurchased and held by the issuer, without cancellation or retirement, such an obligation is not considered outstanding.

(ii) For purposes of paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the amounts of the obligations held by the trust and by persons independent of the issuer shall be computed on the basis of the face amount of the obligations.

(d) Limitation on amount invested in obligations. (1)(i) Immediately following acquisition of the obligation, not more 25 percent of the assets of the employee trust may be invested in all obligations of all persons described in section 503(b). For purposes of determining the amount of the trust's assets which are invested in obligations of persons described in section 503(b) immediately following acquisition of the obligation, those obligations shall be valued as follows:

(a) Those obligations included in the acquisition in respect of which the percentage test in the first sentence of this subdivision is being applied shall be valued at their adjusted basis, as provided in section 1011, relating to adjusted basis for determining gain or loss; and

(b) All other obligations of persons described in section 503(b) which were part of the trust's assets immediately before the acquisition of the obligations described in (d)(1)(i)(a) of this section shall be valued at their fair market value on the day that the obligations described in (d)(1)(i)(a) of this section were acquired. For purposes of determining the total amount of the assets of the trust (including obligations of persons described in section 503(b)), there shall be used the fair market value of those assets on the day the obligation is acquired.

(ii) The application of the rules in paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. On February 1, 1960, an exempt employees' trust described in section 401(a) purchases unsecured debentures issued by the employer corporation for $1,000. At the time of this purchase, such debentures have a fair market value of $1,200. Immediately after the purchase of such unsecured debentures, the assets of the trust consist of the following:

   CostFair market value on Feb. 1, 1960
(a) Assets other than obligations of persons described in sec. 503(b)$5,000$7,800
(b) Obligations of persons described in sec. 503(b) acquired before Feb. 1, 19605001,000
(c) Unsecured debentures of employer purchased on Feb. 1, 19601,0001,200
Immediately following acquisition of the unsecured debentures by the trust, the percent of the assets of the trust that are invested in all obligations of all persons described in section 503(b) is computed as follows:

(1) Obligations of persons described in section 503(b) acquired before Feb. 1, 1960 (valued at fair market value)$1,000
(2) Unsecured debentures of employer purchased on Feb. 1, 1960 (valued at cost)1,000
(3) Total amount of trust's assets invested in obligations of persons described in section 503(b) ((1) plus (2))2,000
(4) Assets of the trust other than obligations of persons described in section 503(b) (valued at fair market value on Feb. 1, 1960)7,800
(5) Obligations of persons described in section 503(b) acquired before Feb. 1, 1960 (valued at fair market value on Feb. 1, 1960)1,000
(6) Unsecured debentures of employer purchased on Feb. 1, 1960 (valued at fair market value on Feb. 1, 1960)$1,200
(7) Total assets of the trust valued at fair market value on Feb. 1, 1960 (sum of (4), (5), and (6))10,000
(8) Percent of assets of the trust invested in all obligations of all persons described in section 503(b) immediately following purchase of unsecured debentures on Feb. 1, 1960 ((3) ÷ (7), that is, $2,000 ÷ $10,000)20%

(2) In determining for purposes of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph the amount invested in obligations of persons described in section 503(b), there shall be included amounts invested in any obligations issued by any such person, irrespective of whether the obligation is secured, and irrespective of whether the obligation meets the conditions of section 503(e) or section 503(f). Obligations of persons described in section 503(b) other than the issuer of the obligation to which section 503(e) applies are also included within the 25 percent limitation. For example, if on February 19, 1959, an exempt employees' trust described in section 401(a) purchases unsecured debentures issued by the employer corporation in a transaction effected on the New York Stock Exchange, and if immediately after the purchase 10 percent of the trust's assets is invested in such debentures and 20 percent of its assets is invested in a loan made with adequate security on January 12, 1959, to the wholly-owned subsidiary of the employer corporation, then the purchase of the employer's debentures will not qualify under section 503(e), since 30 percent of the trust's assets are then invested in obligations of persons described in section 503(b).

(e) Change of terms of an obligation. A change in terms of an obligation is considered as the acquisition of a new obligation. If such new obligation is not adequately secured, the requirements of section 503(e) must be met at the time the terms of the obligation are changed for such section to be applicable to such new loan.

[T.D. 7428, 41 FR 34624, Aug. 16, 1976]


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