Title 26 Part 1 → §1.503(b)-1
Title 26 → Chapter I → Subchapter A → Part 1 → §1.503(b)-1
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR
Title 26 Part 1 → §1.503(b)-1
§1.503(b)-1 Prohibited transactions.
(a) In general. The term prohibited transaction means any transaction set forth in section 503(b) engaged in by any organization described in paragraph (a) of §1.503(a)-1. Whether a transaction is a prohibited transaction depends on the facts and circumstances of the particular case. This section is intended to deny tax-exempt status to such organizations which engage in certain transactions which inure to the private advantage of (1) the creator of such organization (if it is a trust); (2) any substantial contributor to such organization; (3) a member of the family (as defined in section 267(c)(4) of an individual who is such creator of or such substantial contributor to such organization; or (4) a corporation controlled, as set forth in section 503(b), by such creator or substantial contributor.
(b) Loans as prohibited transactions under section 503(b)(1)—(1) Adequate security. For the purposes of section 503(b)(1), which treats as prohibited transactions certain loans by an organization without receipt of adequate security and a reasonable rate of interest, the term adequate security means something in addition to and supporting a promise to pay, which is so pledged to the organization that it may be sold, foreclosed upon, or otherwise disposed of in default of repayment of the loan, the value and liquidity of which security is such that it may reasonably be anticipated that loss of principal or interest will not result from the loan. Mortgages or liens on property, accommodation endorsements of those financially capable of meeting the indebtedness, and stock or securities issued by corporations other than the borrower may constitute security for a loan to the persons or organizations described in section 503(b). Stock of a borrowing corporation does not constitute adequate security. A borrower's evidence of indebtedness, irrespective of its name, is not security for a loan, whether or not it was issued directly to the exempt organization. However, if any such evidence of indebtedness provides for security that may be sold, foreclosed upon, or otherwise disposed of in default of repayment of the loan, there may be adequate security for such loan. If an organization subject to section 503(b) purchases debentures issued by a person specified in section 503(b), the purchase is considered, for purposes of section 503(b)(1), as a loan made by the purchaser to the issuer on the date of such purchase. For example, if an exempt organization subject to section 503(b) makes a purchase through a registered security exchange of debentures issued by a person described in section 503(b), and owned by an unknown third party, the purchase will be considered as a loan to the issuer by the purchaser. For rules relating to loan of funds to, or investment of funds in stock or securities of, persons described in section 503(b) by an organization described in section 401(a), see paragraph (b)(5) of §1.401-1.
(2) Effective dates. The effective dates for the application of the definition of adequate security in paragraph (b)(1) of this paragraph are:
(i) March 15, 1956, for loans (other than debentures) made after March 15, 1956;
(ii) January 31, 1957, for loans (other than debentures) made before March 16, 1956, and continued after January 31, 1957;
(iii) November 8, 1956, for debentures which were purchased after November 8, 1956;
(iv) December 1, 1958, for debentures which were purchased before November 9, 1956, and held after December 1, 1958;
(v) If an employees' pension, stock bonus, or profit-sharing trust described in section 401(a) made a loan before March 1, 1954, repayable by its terms after December 31, 1955, and which would constitute a prohibited transaction if made on or after March 1, 1954, the loan shall not constitute a prohibited transaction if held until maturity (determined without regard to any extension or renewal thereof);
(vi) January 1, 1960, for loans (including the purchase of debentures) made by supplemental unemployment benefit trusts, described in section 501 (c)(17);
(vii) January 1, 1970, for loans (including the purchase of debentures) made by employees' contribution pension plan trusts described in section 501(c)(18).
(3) Certain exceptions to section 503(b)(1). See section 503(e) and §1.503(e)-1, 1.503(e)-2, and 1.503(e)-3 for special rules providing that certain obligations acquired by trusts described in section 401(a) or section 501(c) (17) or (18) shall not be treated as loans made without the receipt of adequate security for purposes of section 503(b)(1). See section 503(f) and §1.503(f)-1 for an exception to the application of sections 503(b)(1) for certain loans made by employees' trusts described in section 401(a).
(c) Examples. The principles of this section are illustrated by the following examples: (Assume that section 503 (e) and (f) are not applicable.)
[T.D. 7428, 41 FR 34621, Aug. 16, 1976]