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Title 26 Part 1 → §1.453-9

Title 26 → Chapter I → Subchapter A → Part 1 → §1.453-9

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 26 Part 1 → §1.453-9

e-CFR data is current as of August 15, 2019

Title 26Chapter ISubchapter APart 1 → §1.453-9


Title 26: Internal Revenue
PART 1—INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED)


§1.453-9   Gain or loss on disposition of installment obligations.

(a) In general. Subject to the exceptions contained in section 453(d)(4) and paragraph (c) of this section, the entire amount of gain or loss resulting from any disposition or satisfaction of installment obligations, computed in accordance with section 453(d), is recognized in the taxable year of such disposition or satisfaction and shall be considered as resulting from the sale or exchange of the property in respect of which the installment obligation was received by the taxpayer.

(b) Computation of gain or loss. (1) The amount of gain or loss resulting under paragraph (a) of this section is the difference between the basis of the obligation and (i) the amount realized, in the case of satisfaction at other than face value or in the case of a sale or exchange, or (ii) the fair market value of the obligation at the time of disposition, if such disposition is other than by sale or exchange.

(2) The basis of an installment obligation shall be the excess of the face value of the obligation over an amount equal to the income which would be returnable were the obligation satisfied in full.

(3) The application of subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. In 1960 the M Corporation sold a piece of unimproved real estate to B for $20,000. The company acquired the property in 1948 at a cost of $10,000. During 1960 the company received $5,000 cash and vendee's notes for the remainder of the selling price, or $15,000, payable in subsequent years. In 1962, before the vendee made any further payments, the company sold the notes for $13,000 in cash. The corporation makes its returns on the calendar year basis. The income to be reported for 1962 is $5,500, computed as follows:

Proceeds of sale of notes$13,000
Selling price of property$20,000
Cost of property10,000
Total profit10,000
Total contract price20,000
Percent of profit, or proportion of each payment returnable as income, $10,000 divided by $20,000, 50 percent.
Face value of notes15,000
Amount of income returnable were the notes satisfied in full, 50 percent of $15,0007,500
Basis of obligation—excess of face value of notes over amount of income returnable were the notes satisfied in full7,500
   Taxable income to be reported for 19625,500
Example 2. Suppose in Example 1 the M Corporation, instead of selling the notes, distributed them in 1962 to its shareholders as a dividend, and at the time of such distribution, the fair market value of the notes was $14,000. The income to be reported for 1962 is $6,500, computed as follows:

Fair market value of notes$14,000
Basis of obligation—excess of face value of notes over amount of income returnable were the notes satisfied in full (computed as in Example 1)7,500
Taxable income to be reported for 19626,500

(c) Disposition from which no gain or loss is recognized. (1)(i) Under section 453(d)(4)(A), no gain or loss shall be recognized to a distributing corporation with respect to the distribution made after November 13, 1966, of installment obligations if (a) the distribution is made pursuant to a plan for the complete liquidation of a subsidiary under section 332, and (b) the basis of the such obligations in the hands of the distributee is determined under section 334(b)(1).

(ii) Under section 453(d)(4)(B), no gain or loss shall be recognized to a distributing corporation with respect to the distribution of installment obligations if the distribution is made, pursuant to a plan for the complete liquidation of a corporation which meets the requirements of section 337, under conditions whereby no gain or loss would have been recognized to the corporation had such installment obligations been sold or exchanged on the day of the distribution. The preceding sentence shall not apply to the extent that under section 453(d)(1) gain to the distributing corporation would be considered as gain to which section 341(f)(2), 617(d)(1), 1245(a)(1), 1250(a)(1), 1251(c)(1), 1252(a)(1), or 1254(a)(1) applies, computed under the principles of the regulations under such provisions. See paragraph (d) of §1.1245-6, paragraph (c)(6) of §1.1250-1, paragraph (e)(6) of §1.1251-1, paragraph (d)(3) of §1.1252-1, and paragraph (d) of §1.1254-1.

(2) Where the Code provides for exceptions to the recognition of gain or loss in the case of certain dispositions, no gain or loss shall result under section 453(d) in the case of a disposition of an installment obligation. Such exceptions include: Certain transfers to corporations under sections 351 and 361; contributions of property to a partnership by a partner under section 721; and distributions by a partnership to a partner under section 731 (except as provided by section 736 and section 751).

(3) Any amount received by a person in payment or settlement of an installment obligation acquired in a transaction described in subparagraphs (1) or (2) of this paragraph (other than an amount received by a stockholder with respect to an installment obligation distributed to him pursuant to section 337) shall be considered to have the character it would have had in the hands of the person from whom such installment obligation was acquired.

(d) Carryover of installment method. For the treatment of income derived from installment obligations received in transactions to which section 381 (a) is applicable, see section 381(c)(8) and the regulations thereunder.

(e) Installment obligations transmitted at death. Where installment obligations are transmitted at death, see section 691(a)(4) and the regulations thereunder for the treatment of amounts considered income in respect of a decedent.

(f) Losses. See subchapter P (section 1201 and following), chapter 1 of the Code, as to the limitation on capital losses sustained by corporations and the limitation as to both capital gains and capital losses of individuals.

(g) Disposition of installment obligations to life insurance companies. (1) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 453(d)(4) and paragraph (c) of this section or any provision of subtitle A relating to the nonrecognition of gain, the entire amount of any gain realized on the disposition of an installment obligation by any person, other than a life insurance company (as defined in section 801(a) and paragraph (b) of §1.801-3), to a life insurance company or to a partnership of which a life insurance company is a partner shall be recognized and treated in accordance with section 453(d)(1) and paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. If a corporation which is a life insurance company for the taxable year was a corporation which was not a life insurance company for the preceding taxable year, such corporation shall be treated, for purposes of section 453(d)(1) and this paragraph, as having transferred to a life insurance company, on the last day of the preceding taxable year, all installment obligations which it held on such last day. The gain, if any, realized by reason of the installment obligations being so transferred shall be recognized and treated in accordance with section 453(d)(1) and paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. Similarly, a partnership of which a life insurance company becomes a partner shall be treated, for purposes of section 453(d)(1) and this paragraph, as having transferred to a life insurance company, on the last day of the preceding taxable year of such partnership, all installment obligations which it holds at the time such life insurance company becomes a partner. The gain, if any, realized by reason of the installment obligations being so transferred shall be recognized and treated in accordance with section 453(d)(1) and paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

(2) The provisions of section 453(d)(5) and subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall not apply to losses sustained in connection with the disposition of installment obligations to a life insurance company.

(3) For the effective date of the provisions of section 453(d)(5) and this paragraph, see paragraph (f) of §1.453-10.

(4) Application of the provisions of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. A, an individual, in a transaction to which section 351 applies, transfers in 1961 certain assets, including installment obligations, to a new corporation, X, which qualifies as a life insurance company (as defined in section 801(a)) for the year 1961. A makes his return on the calendar year basis. Section 453(d)(5) provides that the nonrecognition provisions of section 351 will not apply to the installment obligations transferred by A to X Corporation. Therefore, the entire amount of any gain realized by A on the transfer of the installment obligations shall be recognized in 1961, with the amount of any such gain computed in accordance with the provisions of section 453(d)(1) and paragraph (b) of this section.

Example 2. The M Corporation did not qualify as a life insurance company (as defined in section 801(a)) for the taxable year 1958. On December 31, 1958, it held $60,000 of installment obligations. The M Corporation qualified as a life insurance company for the taxable year 1959. Accordingly, the M Corporation is treated as having transferred to a life insurance company, on December 31, 1958, the $60,000 of installment obligations it held on such date. The gain, if any, realized by M by reason of such installment obligations being so transferred shall be recognized in the taxable year 1958, with the amount of any such gain computed in accordance with the provisions of section 453(d)(1) and paragraph (b) of this section.

Example 3. During its taxable year 1958, none of the partners of the N partnership qualified as a life insurance company (as defined in section 801(a)). The N partnership held $30,000 of installment obligations on December 31, 1958. On July 30, 1959, the O Corporation, a life insurance company (as defined in section 801(a)), became a partner in the partnership. The N partnership held $50,000 of installment obligations on July 30, 1959. Pursuant to section 453(d)(5), the N partnership is treated as having transferred to a life insurance company, on December 31, 1958, the $50,000 of installment obligations it held on July 30, 1959. The gain, if any, realized by the N partnership by reason of such installment obligations being so transferred shall be recognized in the taxable year 1958, with the amount of any such gain computed in accordance with the provisions of section 453(d)(1) and paragraph (b) of this section.

Example 4. In 1960, the P Corporation, in a reorganization qualifying under section 368(a), transferred certain assets (including installment obligations) to the R Corporation, a life insurance company as defined in section 801(a). P realized a loss upon the transfer of the installment obligations, which was not recognized under section 361. Pursuant to subparagraph (2) of paragraph (c) of this section, no loss with respect to the transfer of these obligations will be recognized to P under section 453(d)(1).

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11718, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6590, 27 FR 1319, Feb. 13, 1962; T.D. 7084, 36 FR 267, Jan. 8, 1971; T.D. 7418, 41 FR 18812, May 7, 1976; T.D. 8586, 60 FR 2500, Jan. 10, 1995]