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Title 26 Part 1 → §1.441-2

Title 26 → Chapter I → Subchapter A → Part 1 → §1.441-2

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 26 Part 1 → §1.441-2

e-CFR data is current as of June 13, 2019

Title 26Chapter ISubchapter APart 1 → §1.441-2


Title 26: Internal Revenue
PART 1—INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED)


§1.441-2   Election of taxable year consisting of 52-53 weeks.

(a) In general—(1) Election. An eligible taxpayer may elect to compute its taxable income on the basis of a fiscal year that—

(i) Varies from 52 to 53 weeks;

(ii) Ends always on the same day of the week; and

(iii) Ends always on—

(A) Whatever date this same day of the week last occurs in a calendar month; or

(B) Whatever date this same day of the week falls that is the nearest to the last day of the calendar month.

(2) Effect. In the case of a taxable year described in paragraph (a)(1)(iii)(A) of this section, the year will always end within the month and may end on the last day of the month, or as many as six days before the end of the month. In the case of a taxable year described in paragraph (a)(1)(iii)(B) of this section, the year may end on the last day of the month, or as many as three days before or three days after the last day of the month.

(3) Eligible taxpayer. A taxpayer is eligible to elect a 52-53-week taxable year if such fiscal year would otherwise satisfy the requirements of section 441 and the regulations thereunder. For example, a taxpayer that is required to use a calendar year under §1.441-1(b)(2)(i)(D) is not an eligible taxpayer.

(4) Example. The provisions of this paragraph (a) are illustrated by the following example:

Example. If the taxpayer elects a taxable year ending always on the last Saturday in November, then for the year 2001, the taxable year would end on November 24, 2001. On the other hand, if the taxpayer had elected a taxable year ending always on the Saturday nearest to the end of November, then for the year 2001, the taxable year would end on December 1, 2001.

(b) Procedures to elect a 52-53-week taxable year—(1) Adoption of a 52-53-week taxable year—(i) In general. A new eligible taxpayer elects a 52-53-week taxable year by adopting such year in accordance with §1.441-1(c). A newly-formed partnership, S corporation or personal service corporation (PSC) may adopt a 52-53-week taxable year without the approval of the Commissioner if such year ends with reference to either the taxpayer's required taxable year (as defined in §1.441-1(b)(2)) or the taxable year elected under section 444. See §§1.441-3, 1.706-1, and 1.1378-1. Similarly, a newly-formed specified foreign corporation (as defined in section 898(b)) may adopt a 52-53-week taxable year if such year ends with reference to the taxpayer's required taxable year, or, if the one-month deferral election under section 898(c)(1)(B) is made, with reference to the month immediately preceding the required taxable year. See §1.1502-76(a)(1) for special rules regarding subsidiaries adopting 52-53-week taxable years.

(ii) Filing requirement. A taxpayer adopting a 52-53-week taxable year must file with its Federal income tax return for its first taxable year a statement containing the following information—

(A) The calendar month with reference to which the 52-53-week taxable year ends;

(B) The day of the week on which the 52-53-week taxable year always will end; and

(C) Whether the 52-53-week taxable year will always end on the date on which that day of the week last occurs in the calendar month, or on the date on which that day of the week falls that is nearest to the last day of that calendar month.

(2) Change to (or from) a 52-53-week taxable year—(i) In general. An election of a 52-53-week taxable year by an existing eligible taxpayer with an established taxable year is treated as a change in annual accounting period that requires the approval of the Commissioner in accordance with §1.442-1. Thus, a taxpayer must obtain approval to change from its current taxable year to a 52-53-week taxable year, even if such 52-53-week taxable year ends with reference to the same calendar month. Similarly, a taxpayer must obtain approval to change from a 52-53-week taxable year, or to change from one 52-53-week taxable year to another 52-53-week taxable year. However, a taxpayer may obtain approval for 52-53-week taxable year changes automatically to the extent provided in administrative procedures published by the Commissioner. See §1.442-1(b) for procedures for obtaining such approval.

(ii) Special rules for the short period required to effect the change. If a change to or from a 52-53-week taxable year results in a short period (within the meaning of §1.443-1(a)) of 359 days or more, or six days or less, the tax computation under §1.443-1(b) does not apply. If the short period is 359 days or more, it is treated as a full taxable year. If the short period is six days or less, such short period is not a separate taxable year but instead is added to and deemed a part of the following taxable year. (In the case of a change to or from a 52-53-week taxable year not involving a change of the month with reference to which the taxable year ends, the tax computation under §1.443-1(b) does not apply because the short period will always be 359 days or more, or six days or less.) In the case of a short period which is more than six days and less than 359 days, taxable income for the short period is placed on an annual basis for purposes of §1.443-1(b) by multiplying such income by 365 and dividing the result by the number of days in the short period. In such case, the tax for the short period is the same part of the tax computed on such income placed on an annual basis as the number of days in the short period is of 365 days (unless §1.443-1(b)(2), relating to the alternative tax computation, applies). For an adjustment in deduction for personal exemption, see §1.443-1(b)(1)(v).

(3) Examples. The following examples illustrate paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section:

Example 1. A taxpayer having a fiscal year ending April 30, obtains approval to change to a 52-53-week taxable year ending the last Saturday in April for taxable years beginning after April 30, 2001. This change involves a short period of 362 days, from May 1, 2001, to April 27, 2002, inclusive. Because the change results in a short period of 359 days or more, it is not placed on an annual basis and is treated as a full taxable year.

Example 2. Assume the same conditions as Example 1, except that the taxpayer changes for taxable years beginning after April 30, 2002, to a taxable year ending on the Thursday nearest to April 30. This change results in a short period of two days, May 1 to May 2, 2002. Because the short period is less than seven days, tax is not separately computed. This short period is added to and deemed part of the following 52-53-week taxable year, which would otherwise begin on May 3, 2002, and end on May 1, 2003.

(c) Application of effective dates—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, for purposes of determining the effective date (e.g., of legislative, regulatory, or administrative changes) or the applicability of any provision of the internal revenue laws that is expressed in terms of taxable years beginning, including, or ending with reference to the first or last day of a specified calendar month, a 52-53-week taxable year is deemed to begin on the first day of the calendar month nearest to the first day of the 52-53-week taxable year, and is deemed to end or close on the last day of the calendar month nearest to the last day of the 52-53-week taxable year, as the case may be. Examples of provisions of this title, the applicability of which is expressed in terms referred to in the preceding sentence, include the provisions relating to the time for filing returns and other documents, paying tax, or performing other acts, and the provisions of part II, subchapter B, chapter 6 (section 1561 and following) relating to surtax exemptions of certain controlled corporations.

(2) Examples. The provisions of paragraph (c)(1) of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Assume that an income tax provision is applicable to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2001. For that purpose, a 52-53-week taxable year beginning on any day within the period December 26, 2000, to January 4, 2001, inclusive, is treated as beginning on January 1, 2001.

Example 2. Assume that an income tax provision requires that a return must be filed on or before the 15th day of the third month following the close of the taxable year. For that purpose, a 52-53-week taxable year ending on any day during the period May 25 to June 3, inclusive, is treated as ending on May 31, the last day of the month ending nearest to the last day of the taxable year, and the return, therefore, must be made on or before August 15.

Example 3. Assume that a revenue procedure requires the performance of an act by the taxpayer within “the first 90 days of the taxable year,” by “the 75th day of the taxable year,” or, alternately, by “the last day of the taxable year.” The taxpayer employs a 52-53-week taxable year that ends always on the Saturday closest to the last day of December. These requirements are not expressed in terms of taxable years beginning, including, or ending with reference to the first or last day of a specified calendar month, and are accordingly outside the scope of the rule stated in §1.441-2(c)(1). Accordingly, the taxpayer must perform the required act by the 90th, 75th, or last day, respectively, of its taxable year.

Example 4. X, a corporation created on January 1, 2001, elects a 52-53-week taxable year ending on the Friday nearest the end of December. Thus, X's first taxable year begins on Monday, January 1, 2001, and ends on Friday, December 28, 2001; its next taxable year begins on Saturday, December 29, 2001, and ends on Friday, January 3, 2003; and its next taxable year begins on Saturday, January 4, 2003, and ends on Friday, January 2, 2004. For purposes of applying the provisions of part II, subchapter B, chapter 6 of the Internal Revenue Code, X's first taxable year is deemed to end on December 31, 2001; its next taxable year is deemed to begin on January 1, 2002, and end on December 31, 2002, and its next taxable year is deemed to begin on January 1, 2003, and end on December 31, 2003. Accordingly, each such taxable year is treated as including one and only one December 31st.

(3) Changes in tax rates. If a change in the rate of tax is effective during a 52-53-week taxable year (other than on the first day of such year as determined under paragraph (c)(1) of this section), the tax for the 52-53-week taxable year must be computed in accordance with section 15, relating to effect of changes, and the regulations thereunder. For the purpose of the computation under section 15, the determination of the number of days in the period before the change, and in the period on and after the change, is to be made without regard to the provisions of paragraph (b)(1) of this paragraph.

(4) Examples. The provisions of paragraph (c)(3) of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Assume a change in the rate of tax is effective for taxable years beginning after June 30, 2002. For a 52-53-week taxable year beginning on Friday, November 2, 2001, the tax must be computed on the basis of the old rates for the actual number of days from November 2, 2001, to June 30, 2002, inclusive, and on the basis of the new rates for the actual number of days from July 1, 2002, to Thursday, October 31, 2002, inclusive.

Example 2. Assume a change in the rate of tax is effective for taxable years beginning after June 30, 2001. For this purpose, a 52-53-week taxable year beginning on any of the days from June 25 to July 4, inclusive, is treated as beginning on July 1. Therefore, no computation under section 15 will be required for such year because of the change in rate.

(d) Computation of taxable income. The principles of section 451, relating to the taxable year for inclusion of items of gross income, and section 461, relating to the taxable year for taking deductions, generally are applicable to 52-53-week taxable years. Thus, except as otherwise provided, all items of income and deduction must be determined on the basis of a 52-53-week taxable year. However, a taxpayer may determine particular items as though the 52-53-week taxable year were a taxable year consisting of 12 calendar months, provided that practice is consistently followed by the taxpayer and clearly reflects income. For example, an allowance for depreciation or amortization may be determined on the basis of a 52-53-week taxable year, or as though the 52-53-week taxable year is a taxable year consisting of 12 calendar months, provided the taxpayer consistently follows that practice with respect to all depreciable or amortizable items.

(e) Treatment of taxable years ending with reference to the same calendar month—(1) Pass-through entities. If a pass-through entity (as defined in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section) or an owner of a pass-through entity (as defined in paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section), or both, use a 52-53-week taxable year and the taxable year of the pass-through entity and the owner end with reference to the same calendar month, then, for purposes of determining the taxable year in which items of income, gain, loss, deductions, or credits from the pass-through entity are taken into account by the owner of the pass-through, the owner's taxable year will be deemed to end on the last day of the pass-through's taxable year. Thus, if the taxable year of a partnership and a partner end with reference to the same calendar month, then for purposes of determining the taxable year in which that partner takes into account items described in section 702 and items that are deductible by the partnership (including items described in section 707(c)) and includible in the income of that partner, that partner's taxable year will be deemed to end on the last day of the partnership's taxable year. Similarly, if the taxable year of an S corporation and a shareholder end with reference to the same calendar month, then for purposes of determining the taxable year in which that shareholder takes into account items described in section 1366(a) and items that are deductible by the S corporation and includible in the income of that shareholder, that shareholder's taxable year will be deemed to end on the last day of the S corporation's taxable year.

(2) Personal service corporations and employee-owners. If the taxable year of a PSC (within the meaning of §1.441-3(c)) and an employee-owner (within the meaning of §1.441-3(g)) end with reference to the same calendar month, then for purposes of determining the taxable year in which an employee-owner takes into account items that are deductible by the PSC and includible in the income of the employee-owner, the employee-owner's taxable year will be deemed to end on the last day of the PSC's taxable year.

(3) Definitions—(i) Pass-through entity. For purposes of this section, a pass-through entity means a partnership, S corporation, trust, estate, closely-held real estate investment trust (within the meaning of section 6655(e)(5)(B)), common trust fund (within the meaning of section 584(i)), controlled foreign corporation (within the meaning of section 957), foreign personal holding company (within the meaning of section 552), or passive foreign investment company that is a qualified electing fund (within the meaning of section 1295).

(ii) Owner of a pass-through entity. For purposes of this section, an owner of a pass-through entity generally means a taxpayer that owns an interest in, or stock of, a pass-through entity. For example, an owner of a pass-through entity includes a partner in a partnership, a shareholder of an S corporation, a beneficiary of a trust or an estate, an owner of a closely-held real estate investment trust (within the meaning of section 6655(e)(5)(A)), a participant in a common trust fund, a U.S. shareholder (as defined in section 951(b)) of a controlled foreign corporation, a U.S. shareholder (as defined in section 551(a)) of a foreign personal holding company, or a U.S. person that holds stock in a passive foreign investment company that is a qualified electing fund with respect to that shareholder.

(4) Examples. The provisions of paragraph (e)(2) of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. ABC Partnership uses a 52-53-week taxable year that ends on the Wednesday nearest to December 31, and its partners, A, B, and C, are individual calendar year taxpayers. Assume that, for ABC's taxable year ending January 3, 2001, each partner's distributive share of ABC's taxable income is $10,000. Under section 706(a) and paragraph (e)(1) of this section, for the taxable year ending December 31, 2000, A, B, and C each must include $10,000 in income with respect to the ABC year ending January 3, 2001. Similarly, if ABC makes a guaranteed payment to A on January 2, 2001, A must include the payment in income for A's taxable year ending December 31, 2000.

Example 2. X, a PSC, uses a 52-53-week taxable year that ends on the Wednesday nearest to December 31, and all of the employee-owners of X are individual calendar year taxpayers. Assume that, for its taxable year ending January 3, 2001, X pays a bonus of $10,000 to each employee-owner on January 2, 2001. Under paragraph (e)(2) of this section, each employee-owner must include its bonus in income for the taxable year ending December 31, 2000.

(5) Transition rule. In the case of an owner of a pass-through entity (other than the owner of a partnership or S corporation) that is required by this paragraph (e) to include in income for its first taxable year ending on or after May 17, 2002 amounts attributable to two taxable years of a pass-through entity, the amount that otherwise would be required to be included in income for such first taxable year by reason of this paragraph (e) should be included in income ratably over the four-taxable-year period beginning with such first taxable year under principles similar to §1.702-3T, unless the owner of the pass-through entity elects to include all such income in its first taxable year ending on or after May 17, 2002.

[T.D. 8996, 67 FR 35012, May 17, 2002]