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Title 25 Part 309

Title 25 → Chapter II → Part 309

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 25 Part 309

e-CFR data is current as of August 15, 2018

Title 25Chapter II → Part 309


Title 25: Indians


PART 309—PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS


Contents
§309.1   How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990?
§309.2   What are the key definitions for purposes of the Act?
§309.6   When does a commercial product become an Indian product?
§309.7   How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or displaying art and craft work for sale?
§309.8   For marketing purposes, what is the recommended method of identifying authentic Indian products?
§309.9   When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts?
§309.10   What are some sample categories and examples of Indian products?
§309.11   What are examples of jewelry that are Indian products?
§309.12   What are examples of basketry that are Indian products?
§309.13   What are examples of other weaving and textiles that are Indian products?
§309.14   What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?
§309.15   What are examples of apparel that are Indian products?
§309.16   What are examples of regalia that are Indian products?
§309.17   What are examples of woodwork that are Indian products?
§309.18   What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products?
§309.19   What are examples of pottery and ceramics that are Indian products?
§309.20   What are examples of sculpture, carving, and pipes that are Indian products?
§309.21   What are examples of dolls and toys that are Indian products?
§309.22   What are examples of painting and other fine art forms that are Indian products?
§309.23   Does this part apply to products made before 1935?
§309.24   How will statements about Indian origin of art or craft products be interpreted?
§309.25   How can an individual be certified as an Indian artisan?
§309.26   What penalties apply?
§309.27   How are complaints filed?

Authority: 18 U.S.C. 1159, 25 U.S.C. 305 et seq.

Source: 61 FR 54555, Oct. 21, 1996, unless otherwise noted.

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§309.1   How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990?

These regulations define the nature and Indian origin of products protected by the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990 (18 U.S.C. 1159, 25 U.S.C. 305 et seq.) from false representations, and specify how the Indian Arts and Crafts Board will interpret certain conduct for enforcement purposes. The Act makes it unlawful to offer or display for sale or sell any good in a manner that falsely suggests it is Indian produced, an Indian product, or the product of a particular Indian, or Indian tribe, or Indian arts and crafts organization resident within the United States.

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§309.2   What are the key definitions for purposes of the Act?

(a) Indian as applied to an individual means a person who is a member of an Indian tribe or for purposes of this part is certified by an Indian tribe as a non-member Indian artisan (in accordance with the provisions of §309.4).

(b) Indian artisan means an individual who is certified by an Indian tribe as a non-member Indian artisan.

(c) Indian arts and crafts organization means any legally established arts and crafts marketing organization composed of members of Indian tribes.

(d) Indian product—(1) In general. The term “Indian product” means any art or craft product made by an Indian. For this purpose, the term “made by an Indian” means that an Indian has provided the artistic or craft work labor necessary to implement an artistic design through a substantial transformation of materials to produce the art or craft work. This may include more than one Indian working together. The labor component of the product, however, must be entirely Indian for the Indian art or craft object to be an “Indian product.”

(2) Illustrations. The term “Indian product” includes, but is not limited to:

(i) Art made by an Indian that is in a traditional or non-traditional style or medium;

(ii) Craft work made by an Indian that is in a traditional or non-traditional style or medium;

(iii) Handcraft made by an Indian, i.e. an object created with the help of only such devices as allow the manual skill of the maker to condition the shape and design of each individual product.

(3) Examples of non-qualifying products. An “Indian product” under the Act does not include any of the following, for example:

(i) A product in the style of an Indian art or craft product made by non-Indian labor;

(ii) A product in the style of an Indian art or craft product that is designed by an Indian but produced by non-Indian labor;

(iii) A product in the style of an Indian art or craft product that is assembled from a kit;

(iv) A product in the style of an Indian art or craft product originating from a commercial product, without substantial transformation provided by Indian artistic or craft work labor;

(v) Industrial products, which for this purpose are defined as goods that have an exclusively functional purpose, do not serve as a traditional artistic medium, and that do not lend themselves to Indian embellishment, such as appliances and vehicles. An industrial product may not become an Indian product.

(vi) A product in the style of an Indian art or craft product that is produced in an assembly line or related production line process using multiple workers not all whom are Indians. For example, if twenty people make up the labor to create the product(s), and one person is not Indian, the product is not an “Indian product.”

(e) Indian tribe means—

(1) Any Indian tribe, band, nation, Alaska Native village, or any organized group or community which is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians; or

(2) Any Indian group that has been formally recognized as an Indian tribe by a State legislature or by a State commission or similar organization legislatively vested with State tribal recognition authority.

(f) Product of a particular Indian tribe or Indian arts and crafts organization means that the origin of a product is identified as a named Indian tribe or named Indian arts and crafts organization.

[61 FR 54555, Oct. 21, 1996; 61 FR 57002, Nov. 5, 1996, as amended at 68 FR 35169, June 12, 2003]

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§309.6   When does a commercial product become an Indian product?

In addressing Indian embellishments to originally commercial products, the Indian labor expended to add art or craft work to those objects must be sufficient to substantially transform the qualities and appearance of the original commercial item. “Commercial products,” under this part, are consumer goods designed for profit and mass distribution that lend themselves to Indian embellishment, for example clothing and accessories. Through substantial transformation due to Indian labor, a product changes from a commercial product to an Indian product. Examples of formerly commercial products that become Indian products include tennis shoes to which an Indian applies beadwork and denim jackets to which an Indian applies ribbon appliqués.

[68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.7   How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or displaying art and craft work for sale?

The Indian Arts and Crafts Act is a truth-in-marketing law. Those who produce and market art and craft work should honestly represent and clarify the degree of Indian involvement in the production of the art and craft work when it is sold, displayed or offered for sale. The following guidelines illustrate the way in which art and craft work may be characterized for marketing purposes and gives examples of products that may be marketed as Indian products.

If .  .  . then .  .  .
(a) An Indian conceives, designs, and makes the art or craft workit is an “Indian product.”
(b) An Indian produces a product that is “handcrafted,” as explained in 309.3(d)(iii)it can be marketed as such and it meets the definition of “Indian product.”
(c) An Indian makes an art or craft work using some machine made partsit is “Indian made” and meets the definition of “Indian product.”
(d) An Indian designs a product, such as a bracelet, which is then produced by non-Indiansit does not meet the definition of “Indian product” under the Act.
(e) A product, such as jewelry, is made with non-artistic Indian labor, from assembled or “fit together parts”it does not meet the definition of “Indian product” under the Act.1
(f) A product in the style of an Indian product is assembled by non-Indian labor from a kitit does not meet the definition of “Indian product” under the Act.
(g) A product is in the style of an Indian art or craft product, but not made by an Indianit does not meet the definition of “Indian product” under the Act.
(h) An Indian and a non-Indian jointly undertake the art or craft work to produce an art or craft product, for example a concho beltless than all of the labor is Indian and hence it does not meet the definition of “Indian product” under the Act.2

1For example, a necklace strung with overseas manufactured fetishes or heshi. If an Indian assembled the necklace, in keeping with the truth-in-marketing focus of the Act, it can be marketed as “Indian assembled.” It does not meet the definition of “Indian product” under the Act. Similarly, if a product, such as a dream catcher is assembled by an Indian from a kit, it can be marketed as “Indian assembled.” It does not meet the definition of “Indian product” under the Act.

2In order to be an “Indian product,” the labor component of the product must be entirely Indian. In keeping with this truth-in-marketing law, a collaborative work should be marketed as such. Therefore, it should be marketed as produced by “X” (name of artist or artisan), “Y” (Tribe of individual's enrollment) or (name of Tribe providing official written certification the individual is a non-member Indian artisan and date upon which such certification was issued by the Tribe), and “Z” (name of artist or artisan with no Tribe listed) to avoid providing false suggestions to consumers.

[68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.8   For marketing purposes, what is the recommended method of identifying authentic Indian products?

(a) The recommended method of marketing authentic Indian products is to include the name of the artist or artisan, the name of the Tribe in which the artist or artisan is enrolled, and the individual's Tribal enrollment number. If the individual is a certified non-member Indian artisan, rather than an enrolled Tribal member, the product identification should include the name of the Tribe providing official written certification that the individual is a non-member Indian artisan and the date upon which such certification was issued by the Tribe. In order for an individual to be certified by an Indian Tribe as a non-member Indian artisan, the individual must be of Indian lineage of one or more members of such Indian Tribe and the certification must be issued in writing by the governing body of an Indian Tribe or by a certifying body delegated this function by the governing body of the Indian Tribe.

(b) For example, the Indian product should include a label, hangtag, provenance card, or similar identification that includes W (name of the artist or artisan), and X (name of the Tribe in which the individual is enrolled) and Y (individual's Tribal enrollment number), or a statement that the individual is a certified non-member Indian artisan of Z (name of the Tribe providing certification and the date upon which the certification was issued by the Tribe).

[68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.9   When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts?

A non-Indian can make and sell products in the style of Indian art or craft products only if the non-Indian or other seller does not falsely suggest to consumers that the products have been made by an Indian.

[68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.10   What are some sample categories and examples of Indian products?

What constitutes an Indian product is potentially very broad. However, to provide guidance to persons who produce, market, or purchase items marketed as Indian products, §§309.11 through 309.22 contain a sample listing of “specific examples” of objects that meet the definition of Indian products. There is some repetition, due to the interrelated nature of many Indian products when made by Indian artistic labor. The lists in these sections contain examples and are not intended to be all-inclusive. Additionally, although the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990 and the Indian Arts and Crafts Enforcement Act of 2000 do not address materials used in Indian products, some materials are included for their descriptive nature only. This is not intended to restrict materials used or to exclude materials not listed.

[68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.11   What are examples of jewelry that are Indian products?

(a) Jewelry and related accessories made by an Indian using a wide variety of media, including, but not limited to, silver, gold, turquoise, coral, lapis, jet, nickel silver, glass bead, copper, wood, shell, walrus ivory, whale baleen, bone, horn, horsehair, quill, seed, and berry, are Indian products.

(b) Specific examples include, but are not limited to: ivory and baleen scrimshaw bracelets, abalone shell necklaces, nickel silver scissortail pendants, silver sand cast bracelets, silver overlay bolos, turquoise channel inlay gold rings, cut glass bead rosette earrings, wooden horse stick pins, and medicine wheel quilled medallions.

[68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.12   What are examples of basketry that are Indian products?

(a) Basketry and related weavings made by an Indian using a wide variety of media, including, but not limited to, birchbark, black ash, brown ash, red cedar, yellow cedar, alder, vine maple, willow, palmetto, honeysuckle, river cane, oak, buck brush, sumac, dogwood, cattail, reed, raffia, horsehair, pine needle, spruce root, rye grass, sweet grass, yucca, bear grass, beach grass, rabbit brush, fiber, maidenhair fern, whale baleen, seal gut, feathers, shell, devil's claw, and porcupine quill, are Indian products.

(b) Specific examples include, but are not limited to: double weave river cane baskets, yucca winnowing trays, willow burden baskets, honeysuckle sewing baskets, black ash picnic baskets, cedar capes and dresses, pine needle/raffia effigy baskets, oak splint and braided sweet grass fancy baskets, birchbark containers, baleen baskets, rye grass dance fans, brown ash strawberry baskets, sumac wedding baskets, cedar hats, fiber basket hats, yucca wicker basketry plaques, and spruce root tobacco pouches.

[68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.13   What are examples of other weaving and textiles that are Indian products?

(a) Weavings and textiles made by an Indian using a wide variety of media, including, but not limited to, cornhusk, raffia, tule, horsehair, cotton, wool, fiber, linen, rabbit skin, feather, bison fur, and qiviut (musk ox) wool, are Indian products.

(b) Specific examples include, but are not limited to: corn husk bags, twined yarn bags, cotton mantas, willow cradle boards, horsehair hatbands, Chiefs Blankets, Two Grey Hills rugs, horse blankets, finger woven sashes, brocade table runners, star quilts, pictorial appliqué wall hangings, fiber woven bags, embroidered dance shawls, rabbit skin blankets, and feather blankets.

[68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.14   What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

(a) Beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting made by an Indian to decorate a wide variety of materials, including, but not limited to, bottles, baskets, bags, pouches, and other containers; belts, buckles, jewelry, hatbands, hair clips, barrettes, bolos, and other accessories; moccasins, vests, jackets, and other articles of clothing; and dolls and other toys and collectibles, are Indian products.

(b) Specific examples include, but are not limited to: quilled pipe stems, loom beaded belts, pictorial bags adorned with cut glass beads, deer skin moccasins decorated with moose hair tufting, beaded miniature dolls, and quilled and beaded amulets.

[68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.15   What are examples of apparel that are Indian products?

(a) Apparel made or substantially decorated by an Indian, including, but not limited to, parkas, jackets, coats, moccasins, boots, slippers, mukluks, mittens, gloves, gauntlets, dresses, and shirts, are Indian products.

(b) Specific examples include, but are not limited to: seal skin parkas, ribbon appliqué dance shawls, smoked moose hide slippers, deer skin boots, patchwork jackets, calico ribbon shirts, wing dresses, and buckskin shirts.

[68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.16   What are examples of regalia that are Indian products?

(a) Regalia are ceremonial clothing, modern items with a traditional theme, and accessories with historical significance made or significantly decorated by an Indian, including, but not limited to, that worn to perform traditional dances, participate in traditional socials, used for dance competitions, and worn on special occasions of tribal significance. If these items are made or significantly decorated by an Indian, they are Indian products.

(b) Specific examples include, but are not limited to: hide leggings, buckskin dresses, breech cloths, dance shawls, frontlets, shell dresses, button blankets, feather bustles, porcupine roaches, beaded pipe bags, nickel silver stamped armbands, quilled breast plates, coup sticks, horse sticks, shields, headdresses, dance fans, and rattles.

[68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.17   What are examples of woodwork that are Indian products?

(a) Woodwork items made by an Indian, including, but not limited to, sculpture, drums, furniture, containers, hats, and masks, are Indian products.

(b) Specific examples include, but are not limited to: hand drums, totem poles, animal figurines, folk carvings, kachinas, embellished long house posts, clan house carved doors, chairs, relief panels, bentwood boxes, snow goggles, red and yellow cedar seagoing canoe paddles, hunting hats, spirit masks, bows and arrows, atlatls, redwood dug out canoes, war clubs, flutes, dance sticks, talking sticks, shaman staffs, cradles, decoys, spiral pipe stems, violins, Native American Church boxes, and maple ladles, spoons, and soup bowls.

[68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.18   What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products?

(a) Hide, leatherwork, and fur made or significantly decorated by an Indian, including, but not limited to, parfleches, tipis, horse trappings and tack, pouches, bags, and hide paintings, are Indian products.

(b) Specific examples include, but are not limited to: narrative painted hides, martingales, saddles, bonnet cases, drapes, quirts, forelocks, rosettes, horse masks, bridles, head stalls, cinches, saddle bags, side drops, harnesses, arm bands, belts, and other hand crafted items with studs and tooling.

[68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.19   What are examples of pottery and ceramics that are Indian products?

(a) Pottery, ceramics, and related arts and crafts items made or significantly decorated by an Indian, including, but not limited to, a broad spectrum of clays and ceramic material, are Indian products.

(b) Specific examples include, but are not limited to: ollas, pitch vessels, pipes, raku bowls, pitchers, canteens, effigy pots, wedding vases, micaceous bean pots, seed pots, masks, incised bowls, blackware plates, redware bowls, polychrome vases, and storytellers and other figures.

[68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.20   What are examples of sculpture, carving, and pipes that are Indian products?

(a) Sculpture, carving, and pipes made by an Indian, including, but not limited to, wood, soapstone, alabaster, pipestone, argillite, turquoise, ivory, baleen, bone, antler, and shell, are Indian products.

(b) Specific examples include, but are not limited to: kachina dolls, fetishes, animal figurines, pipestone pipes, moose antler combs, argillite bowls, ivory cribbage boards, whalebone masks, elk horn purses, and clamshell gorgets.

[68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.21   What are examples of dolls and toys that are Indian products?

Dolls, toys, and related items made by an Indian, including, but not limited to, no face dolls, corn husk dolls, patchwork and palmetto dolls, reindeer horn dolls, lacrosse sticks, stick game articles, gambling sticks, gaming dice, miniature cradle boards, and yo-yos, are Indian products.

[68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.22   What are examples of painting and other fine art forms that are Indian products?

Painting and other fine art forms made by an Indian including but, not limited to, works on canvas, photography, sand painting, mural, computer generated art, graphic art, video art work, printmaking, drawing, bronze casting, glasswork, and art forms to be developed in the future, are Indian products.

[68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.23   Does this part apply to products made before 1935?

The provisions of this part do not apply to any art or craft products made before 1935.

[68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.24   How will statements about Indian origin of art or craft products be interpreted?

(a) In general. The unqualified use of the term “Indian” or of the term “Native American” or the unqualified use of the name of an Indian tribe, in connection with an art or craft product, is interpreted to mean for purposes of this part that—

(1) The maker is a member of an Indian tribe, is certified by an Indian tribe as a non-member Indian artisan, or is a member of the particular Indian tribe named; and

(2) The art or craft product is an Indian product.

(b) Products of Indians of foreign tribes—(1) In general. The unqualified use of the term “Indian” or of the term “Native American” or the unqualified use of the name of a foreign tribe, in connection with an art or craft product, regardless of where it is produced and regardless of any country-of-origin marking on the product, is interpreted to mean for purposes of this part that—

(i) The maker is a member of an Indian tribe, is certified by an Indian tribe as a non-member Indian artisan, or is a member of the particular Indian tribe named;

(ii) The tribe is resident in the United States; and

(iii) The art or craft product is an Indian product.

(2) Exception where country of origin is disclosed. Paragraph (b) of this section does not apply to any art or craft for which the name of the foreign country of tribal ancestry is clearly disclosed in conjunction with marketing of the product.

Example. X is a lineal descendant of a member of Indian Tribe A. However, X is not a member of Indian Tribe A, nor is X certified by Indian Tribe A as a non-member Indian artisan. X may not be described in connection with the marketing of an art or craft product made by X as an Indian, a Native American, a member of an Indian tribe, a member of Tribe A, or as a non-member Indian artisan of an Indian tribe. However, the true statement may be used that X is of Indian descent, Native American descent, or Tribe A descent.

[61 FR 54555, Oct. 21, 1996; 61 FR 57002, Nov. 5, 1996. Redesignated at 68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.25   How can an individual be certified as an Indian artisan?

(a) In order for an individual to be certified by an Indian tribe as a non-member Indian artisan for purposes of this part—

(1) The individual must be of Indian lineage of one or more members of such Indian tribe; and

(2) The certification must be documented in writing by the governing body of an Indian tribe or by a certifying body delegated this function by the governing body of the Indian tribe.

(b) As provided in section 107 of the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990, Public Law 101-644, a tribe may not impose a fee for certifying an Indian artisan.

[61 FR 54555, Oct. 21, 1996. Redesignated at 68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.26   What penalties apply?

A person who offers or displays for sale or sells a good, with or without a Government trademark, in a manner that falsely suggests it is Indian produced, an Indian product, or the product of a particular Indian or Indian tribe or Indian arts and crafts organization, resident within the United States:

(a) Is subject to the criminal penalties specified in section 1159, title 18, United States Code; and

(b) Is subject to the civil penalties specified in section 305e, title 25, United States Code.

[61 FR 54555, Oct. 21, 1996. Redesignated at 68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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§309.27   How are complaints filed?

Complaints about protected products alleged to be offered or displayed for sale or sold in a manner that falsely suggests they are Indian products should be made in writing and addressed to the Director, Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Room 4004-MIB, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1849 C Street, NW, Washington, DC 20240.

[61 FR 54555, Oct. 21, 1996. Redesignated at 68 FR 35170, June 12, 2003]

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