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Title 22 Part 1104

Title 22 → Chapter XI → Part 1104

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 22 Part 1104

e-CFR data is current as of August 10, 2018

Title 22Chapter XI → Part 1104


Title 22: Foreign Relations


PART 1104—PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES


Contents
§1104.1   Purpose.
§1104.2   Definitions.
§1104.3   Prohibited acts.
§1104.4   Permit requirements and exceptions.
§1104.5   Application for permits and information collection.
§1104.6   Notification to Indian tribes of possible harm to, or destruction of, sites on public lands having religious or cultural importance.
§1104.7   Issuance of permits.
§1104.8   Terms and conditions of permits.
§1104.9   Suspension and revocation of permits.
§1104.10   Appeals relating to permits.
§1104.11   Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.
§1104.12   Custody of archaeological resources.
§1104.13   Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair.
§1104.14   Assessment of civil penalties.
§1104.15   Civil penalty amounts.
§1104.16   Other penalties and rewards.
§1104.17   Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.
§1104.18   Report to the Secretary of the Interior.

Authority: Pub. L. 96-95, 93 Stat. 721 (16 U.S.C. 470aa-11) (Sec. 10(a).) Related Authority: Pub. L. 59-209, 34 Stat. 225 (16 U.S.C. 432, 433); Pub. L. 86-523, 74 Stat. 220, 221 (16 U.S.C. 469), as amended, 88 Stat. 174 (1974); Pub. L. 89-665, 80 Stat. 915 (16 U.S.C. 470a-t), as amended, 84 Stat. 204 (1970), 87 Stat. 139 (1973), 90 Stat. 1320 (1976), 92 Stat. 3467 (1978), 94 Stat. 2987 (1980); Pub. L. 95-341, 92 Stat. 469 (42 U.S.C. 1996).

Source: 56 FR 21590, May 10, 1991, unless otherwise noted.

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§1104.1   Purpose.

(a) The regulations in this part implement provisions of the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 (16 U.S.C. 470aa-11) by establishing the definitions, standards, and procedures to be followed by the Commissioner in providing protection for archaeological resources, located on public lands through permits authorizing excavation and/or removal of archaeological resources, through civil penalties for unauthorized excavation and/or removal, through provisions for the preservation of archaeological resource collections and data, and through provisions for ensuring confidentiality of information about archaeological resources when disclosure would threaten the archaeological resources.

(b) The regulations in this part do not impose any new restrictions on activities permitted under other laws, authorities, and regulations relating to mining, mineral leasing, reclamation, and other multiple uses of the public lands.

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§1104.2   Definitions.

As used for purposes of this part:

(a) Archaeological resource means any material remains of human life or activities which are at least 100 years of age, and which are of archaeological interest.

(1) Of archaeological interest means capable of providing scientific or humanistic understandings of past human behavior, cultural adaptation, and related topics through the application of scientific or scholarly techniques such as controlled observation, contextual measurement, controlled collection, analysis, interpretation and explanation.

(2) Material remains means physical evidence of human habitation, occupation, use, or activity, including the site, location, or context in which such evidence is situated.

(3) The following classes of material remains (and illustrative examples), if they are at least 100 years of age, are of archaeological interest and shall be considered archaeological resources unless determined otherwise pursuant to paragraph (a)(4) or (a)(5) of this section:

(i) Surface or subsurface structures, shelters, facilities, or features (including, but not limited to, domestic structures, storage structures, cooking structures, ceremonial structures, artificial mounds, earthworks, fortifications, canals, reservoirs, horticultural/agricultural gardens or fields, bedrock mortars or grinding surfaces, rock alignments, cairns, trails, borrow pits, cooking pits, refuse pits, burial pits or graves, hearths, kilns, post molds, wall trenches, middens);

(ii) Surface or subsurface artifact concentrations or scatters;

(iii) Whole or fragmentary tools, implements, containers, weapons and weapon projectiles, clothing, and ornaments (including, but not limited to, pottery and other ceramics, cordage, basketry and other weaving, bottles and other glassware, bone, ivory, shell, metal, wood, hide, feathers, pigments, and flaked, ground, or pecked stone);

(iv) By-products, waste products, or debris resulting from manufacture or use of human-made or natural materials;

(v) Organic waste (including but not limited to, vegetable and animal remains, coprolites);

(vi) Human remains (including, but not limited to, bone, teeth, mummified flesh, burials, cremations);

(vii) Rock carvings, rock paintings, intaglios and other works of artistic or symbolic representation;

(viii) Rockshelters and caves or portions thereof containing any of the above material remains;

(ix) All portions of shipwrecks (including but not limited to, armaments, apparel, tackle, cargo);

(x) Any portion or piece of any of the foregoing.

(4) The following material remains shall not be considered of archaeological interest, and shall not be considered to be archaeological resources for purposes of the Act and this part, unless found in a direct physical relationship with archaeological resources as defined in this section:

(i) Paleontological remains;

(ii) Coins, bullets, and unworked minerals and rocks.

(5) The Commissioner may determine that certain material remains, in specified areas under the Commissioner's jurisdiction, and under specified circumstances, are not or are no longer of archaeological interest and are not to be considered archaeological resources under this part. Any determination made pursuant to this subparagraph shall be documented. Such Determination shall in no way affect the Commissioner's obligations under other applicable laws or regulations.

(b) Arrowhead means any projectile point which appears to have been designed for use with an arrow.

(c) Commissioner means the head of the United States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico, and his delegate.

(d) Public lands means lands to which the United States of America holds fee title, and which are under the control of the U.S. Section, International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico.

(e) Indian tribe as defined in the Act means any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community. In order to clarify this statutory definition for purposes of this part, Indian tribe means:

(1) Any tribal entity which is included in the annual list of recognized tribes published in the Federal Register by the Secretary of the Interior pursuant to 25 CFR part 54;

(2) Any other tribal entity acknowledged by the Secretary of the Interior pursuant to 25 CFR part 54 since the most recent publication of the annual list;

(f) Person means an individual, corporation, partnership, trust, institution, association, or any other private entity, or any officer, employee, agent, department, or instrumentality of the United States, or of any Indian tribe, or of any State or political subdivision thereof.

(g) State means any of the fifty states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands.

(h) Act means the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 (16 U.S.C. 470aa-11.), as amended.

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§1104.3   Prohibited acts.

(a) No person may excavate, remove, damage, or otherwise alter or deface any archaeological resource located on public lands unless such activity is pursuant to a permit issued under §1104.7 or exempted by §1104.4(b) of this part.

(b) No person may sell, purchase, exchange, transport, or receive any archaeological resource, if such resource was excavated or removed in violation of:

(1) The prohibitions contained in paragraph (a) of this section; or

(2) Any provision, rule, regulation, ordinance, or permit in effect under any other provision of Federal law.

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§1104.4   Permit requirements and exceptions.

(a) Any person proposing to excavate and/or remove archaeological resources from public lands, and to carry out activities associated with such excavation and/or removal, shall apply to the Commissioner for a permit for the proposed work, and shall not begin the proposed work until a permit has been issued. The Commissioner may issue a permit to any qualified person, subject to appropriate terms and conditions, provided that the person applying for a permit meets conditions in §1104.7(a) of this part.

(b) Exceptions:

(1) No permit shall be required under this part for any person conducting activities on the public lands under other permits, leases, licenses, or entitlements for use, when those activities are exclusively for purposes other than the excavation and/or removal of archaeological resources, even though those activities might incidentally result in the disturbance of archaeological resources. General earth-moving excavation conducted under a permit or other authorization shall not be construed to mean excavation and/or removal as used in this part. This exception does not, however, affect the Commissioner's responsibility to comply with other authorities which protect archaeological resources prior to approving permits, leases, licenses, or entitlements for use; any excavation and/or removal of archaeological resources required for compliance with those authorities shall be conducted in accordance with the permit requirements of this part.

(2) No permit shall be required under this part for any person collecting for private purposes any rock, coin, bullet, or mineral which is not an archaeological resource as defined in this part, provided that such collecting does not result in disturbance of any archaeological resource.

(3) No permit shall be required under section 3 of the Act of June 8, 1906 (16 U.S.C. 432) for any archaeological work for which a permit is issued under this part.

(c) Persons carrying out official agency duties under the Commissioner's direction, associated with the management of archaeological resources, need not follow the permit application procedures of §1104.5. However, the Commissioner shall insure that provisions of §§1104.7 and 1104.8 have been met by other documented means, and that any official duties which might result in harm to or destruction of any Indian tribal religious or cultural site, as determined by the Commissioner, have been the subject of consideration under §1104.6.

(d) Upon the written request of the Governor of any State, on behalf of the State or its educational institutions, the Commissioner shall issue a permit, subject to the provisions of §§1104.4(b)(5), 1104.6, 1104.7(a) (3), (4), (5), (6), and (7), 1104.8, 1104.9, 1104.11, and 1104.12(a) to such Governor or to such designee as the Governor deems qualified to carry out the intent of the Act, for purposes of conducting archaeological research, excavating and/or removing archaeological resources, and safeguarding and preserving any materials and data collected in a university, museum, or other scientific or educational institution approved by the Commissioner.

(e) Under other statutory, regulatory, or administrative authorities governing the use of public lands, authorizations may be required for activities which do not require a permit under this part. Any person wishing to conduct on public lands any activities related to but believed to fall outside the scope of this part should consult with the Commissioner, for the purpose of determining whether any authorization is required, prior to beginning such activities.

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§1104.5   Application for permits and information collection.

(a) Any person may apply to the Commissioner for a permit to excavate and/or remove archaeological resources from public lands and to carry out activities associated with such excavation and/or removal.

(b) Each application for a permit shall include:

(1) The nature and extent of the work proposed, including how and why it is proposed to be conducted, proposed time of performance, locational maps, and proposed outlet for public written dissemination of the results.

(2) The name and address of the individual(s) proposed to be responsible for conducting the work, institutional affiliation, if any, and evidence of education, training, and experience in accord with the minimal qualifications listed in §1104.7(a).

(3) The name and address of the individual(s), if different from the individual(s) named in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, proposed to be responsible for carrying out the terms and conditions of the permit.

(4) Evidence of the applicant's ability to initiate, conduct, and complete the proposed work, including evidence of logistical support and laboratory facilities.

(5) Where the application is for the excavation and/or removal of archaeological resources on public lands, the names of the university, museum, or other scientific or educational institution in which the applicant proposes to store all collections, and copies of records, data, photographs, and other documents derived from the proposed work. Applicants shall submit written certification, signed by an authorized official of the institution, of willingness to assume curatorial responsibility for the collections, records, data, photographs and other documents and to safeguard and preserve these materials as property of the United States.

(c) The Commissioner may require additional information, pertinent to land management responsibilities, to be included in the application for permit and shall so inform the applicant.

(d) Paperwork Reduction Act. The information collection requirement contained in §1104.5 of these regulations has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq. and assigned clearance number 1024-0037. The purpose of the information collection is to meet statutory and administrative requirements in the public interest. The information will be used to assist the Commissioner in determining that applicants for permits are qualified, that the work proposed would further archaeological knowledge, that archaeological resources and associated records and data will be properly preserved, and that the permitted activity would not conflict with the management of the public lands involved. Response to the information requirement is necessary in order for an applicant to obtain a benefit.

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§1104.6   Notification to Indian tribes of possible harm to, or destruction of, sites on public lands having religious or cultural importance.

(a) If the issuance of a permit under this part may result in harm to, or destruction of, any Indian tribal religious or cultural site on public lands, as determined by the Commissioner, at least 30 days before issuing such a permit the Commissioner shall notify any Indian tribe which may consider the site as having religious or cultural importance. Such notice shall not be deemed a disclosure to the public for purposes of section 9 of the Act.

(1) Notice by the Commissioner to any Indian tribe shall be sent to the chief executive officer or other designated official of the tribe. Indian tribes are encouraged to designate a tribal official to be the focal point for any notification and discussion between the tribe and the Commissioner.

(2) The Commissioner may provide notice to any other Native American group that is known by the Commissioner to consider sites potentially affected as being of religious or cultural importance.

(3) Upon request during the 30-day period, the Commissioner may meet with official representatives of any Indian tribe or group to discuss their interests, including ways to avoid or mitigate potential harm or destruction such as excluding sites from the permit area. Any mitigation measures which are adopted shall be incorporated into the terms and conditions of the permit under §1104.8.

(4) When the Commissioner determines that a permit applied for under this part must be issued immediately because of an imminent threat of loss or destruction of an archaeological resource, the Commissioner shall so notify the appropriate tribe.

(b)(1) In order to identify sites of religious or cultural importance, the Commissioner shall seek to identify all Indian tribes having aboriginal or historic ties to the lands under the Commissioner's jurisdiction and seek to determine, from the chief executive officer or other designated official of any such tribe, the location and nature of specific sites of religious or cultural importance so that such information may be on file for land management purposes. Information on site eligible for or included in the National Register of Historic Places may be withheld from public disclosure pursuant to section 304 of the Act of October 15, 1966, as amended (16 U.S.C. 470w-3).

(2) If the Commissioner becomes aware of a Native American group that is not an Indian tribe as defined in this part but has aboriginal or historic ties to public lands under the Commissioner's jurisdiction, the Commissioner may seek to communicate with official representatives of that group to obtain information on sites they may consider to be of religious or cultural importance.

(3) The Commissioner may enter into agreement with any Indian tribe or other Native American group for determining locations for which such tribe or group wishes to receive notice under this section.

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§1104.7   Issuance of permits.

(a) The Commissioner may issue a permit, for a specified period of time appropriate to the work to be conducted, upon determining that:

(1) The applicant is appropriately qualified, as evidenced by training, education, and/or experience, and possesses demonstrable competence in archaeological theory and methods, and in collecting, handling, analyzing, evaluating, and reporting archaeological data, relative to the type and scope of the work proposed, and also meets the following minimum qualifications:

(i) A graduate degree in anthropology or archaeology, or equivalent training and experience;

(ii) The demonstrated ability to plan, equip, staff, organize, and supervise activity of the type and scope proposed;

(iii) The demonstrated ability to carry research to completion, as evidenced by timely completion of theses, research reports, or similar documents;

(iv) Completion of at least 16 months of professional experience and/or specialized training in archaeological field, laboratory, or library research, administration, or management, including at least 4 months experience and/or specialized training in the kind of activity the individual proposes to conduct under authority of a permit; and

(v) Applicants proposing to engage in historical archaeology should have had at least one year of experience in research concerning archaeological resources of the prehistoric period.

(2) The proposed work is to be undertaken for the purpose of furthering archaeological knowledge in the public interest, which may include but need not be limited to, scientific or scholarly research, and preservation of archaeological data;

(3) The proposed work, including time, scope, location, and purpose, is not inconsistent with any management plan or established policy, objectives, or requirements applicable to the management of the public lands concerned;

(4) Where the proposed work consists of archaeological survey and/or data recovery undertaken in accordance with other approved uses of the public lands, and the proposed work has been agreed to in writing by the Commissioner pursuant to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470f), paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3) of this section shall be deemed satisfied by the prior approval;

(5) Evidence is submitted to the Commissioner that any university, museum, or other scientific or educational institution proposed in the application as the repository possesses adequate curatorial capability for safeguarding and preserving the archaeological resources and all associated records; and

(6) The applicant has certified that, not later than 90 days after the date the final report is submitted to the Commissioner, the following will be delivered to the appropriate official of the approved university, museum, or other scientific or educational institution, which shall be named in the permit:

(i) All artifacts, samples, collections, and copies of records, data, photographs, and other documents resulting from work conducted under the requested permit where the permit is for the excavation and/or removal of archaeological resources from public lands.

(b) When the area of the proposed work would cross jurisdictional boundaries, so that permit applications must be submitted to more than one Federal agency, the Commissioner shall coordinate the review and evaluation of applications and the issuance of permits.

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§1104.8   Terms and conditions of permits.

(a) In all permits issued, the Commissioner shall specify:

(1) The nature and extent of work allowed and required under the permit, including the time, duration, scope, location, and purpose of the work;

(2) The name of the individual(s) responsible for conducting the work and, if different, the name of the individual(s) responsible for carrying out the terms and conditions of the permit;

(3) The name of any university, museum, or other scientific or educational institutions in which any collected materials and data shall be deposited; and

(4) Reporting requirements.

(b) The Commissioner may specify such terms and conditions as deemed necessary, consistent with this part, to protect public safety and other values and/or resources, to secure work areas, to safeguard other legitimate land uses, and to limit activities incidental to work authorized under a permit.

(c) Initiation of work or other activities under the authority of a permit signifies the permittee's acceptance of the terms and conditions of the permit.

(d) The permittee shall not be released from requirements of a permit until all outstanding obligations have been satisifed, whether or not the term of the permit has expired.

(e) The permittee may request that the Commissioner extend or modify a permit.

(f) The permittee's performance under any permit issued for a period greater than 1 year shall be subject to review by the Commissioner, at least annually.

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§1104.9   Suspension and revocation of permits.

(a) Suspension or revocation for cause. (1) The Commissioner may suspend a permit issued pursuant to this part upon determining that the permittee has failed to meet any of the terms and conditions of the permit or has violated any prohibition of the Act or §1104.3. The Commissioner shall provide written notice to the permittee of the suspension, the cause thereof, and the requirements which must be met before the suspension will be removed.

(2) The Commissioner may revoke a permit upon assessment of a civil penalty under §1104.14 upon the permittee's conviction under section 6 of the Act, or upon determining that the permittee has failed after notice under this section to correct the situation which led to suspension of the permit.

(b) Suspension or revocation for management purposes. The Commissioner may suspend or revoke a permit, without liability to the United States, its agents, or employees, when continuation of work under the permit would be in conflict with management requirements not in effect when the permit was issued. The Commissioner shall provide written notice to the permittee stating the nature of and basis for the suspension or revocation.

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§1104.10   Appeals relating to permits.

Any affected person may appeal permit issuance, denial of permit issuance, suspension, revocation, and terms and conditions of a permit.

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§1104.11   Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

Issuance of a permit in accordance with the Act and this part does not constitute an undertaking requiring compliance with section 106 of the Act of October 15, 1966 (16 U.S.C. 470f). However, the mere issuance of such a permit does not excuse the Commissioner from compliance with section 106 where otherwise required.

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§1104.12   Custody of archaeological resources.

(a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property of the United States.

(b) The Commissioner may provide for the exchange of archaeological resources among suitable universities, museums, or other scientific or educational institutions, when such resources have been excavated or removed from public lands under the authority of a permit issued by the Commissioner.

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§1104.13   Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair.

(a) Archaeological value. For purposes of this part, the archaeological value of any archaeological resource involved in a violation of the prohibitions in §1104.3 of this part or conditions of a permit issued pursuant to this part shall be the value of the information associated with the archaeological resource. This value shall be appraised in terms of the costs of the retrieval of the scientific information which would have been obtainable prior to the violation. These costs may include, but need not be limited to, the cost of preparing a research design, conducting field work, carrying out laboratory analysis, and preparing reports as would be necessary to realize the information potential.

(b) Commercial value. For purposes of this part, the commercial value of any archaeological resource involved in a violation of the prohibitions in §1104.3 of this part or conditions of a permit issued pursuant to this part shall be its fair market value. Where the violation has resulted in damage to the archaeological resource, the fair market value should be determined using the condition of the archaeological resource prior to the violation, to the extent that its prior condition can be ascertained.

(c) Cost of restoration and repair. For purposes of this part, the cost of restoration and repair of archaeological resources damaged as a result of a violation of prohibitions or conditions pursuant to this part, shall be the sum of the costs already incurred for emergency restoration or repair work, plus those costs projected to be necessary to complete restoration and repair, which may include, but need not be limited to, the costs of the following:

(1) Reconstruction of the archaeological resource;

(2) Stabilization of the archaeological resource;

(3) Ground contour reconstruction and surface stabilization;

(4) Research necessary to carry out reconstruction or stabilization;

(5) Physical barriers or other protective devices, necessitated by the disturbance of the archaeological resource, to protect it from further disturbance;

(6) Examination and analysis of the archaeological resource including recording remaining archaeological information, where necessitated by disturbance, in order to salvage remaining values which cannot be otherwise conserved;

(7) Reinterment of human remains in accordance with religious custom and State, local, or tribal law, where appropriate, as determined by the Commissioner;

(8) Preparation of reports relating to any of the above activities.

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§1104.14   Assessment of civil penalties.

(a) The Commissioner may assess a civil penalty against any person who has violated any prohibition contained in §1104.3 or who has violated any term or condition included in a permit issued in accordance with the Act and this part.

(b) Notice of violation. The Commissioner shall serve a notice of violation upon any person believed to be subject to a civil penalty, either in person or by registered or certified mail (return receipt requested). The Commissioner shall include in the notice:

(1) A concise statement of the facts believed to show a violation;

(2) A specific reference to the provision(s) of this part or to a permit issued pursuant to this part allegedly violated;

(3) The amount of penalty proposed to be assessed, including any initial proposal to mitigate or remit where appropriate, or a statement that notice of a proposed penalty amount will be served after the damages associated with the alleged violation have been ascertained;

(4) Notification of the right to file a petition for relief pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section, or to await the Commissioner's notice of assessment, and to request a hearing in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section. The notice shall also inform the person of the right to seek judicial review of any final administrative decision assessing a civil penalty.

(c) The person served with a notice of violation shall have 45 calendar days from the date of its service (or the date of service of a proposed penalty amount, if later) in which to respond. During this time the person may:

(1) Seek informal discussions with the Commissioner;

(2) File a petition for relief in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section;

(3) Take no action and await the Commissioner's notice of assessment;

(4) Accept in writing or by payment the proposed penalty, or any mitigation or remission offered in the notice. Acceptance of the proposed penalty or mitigation or remission shall be deemed a waiver of the notice of assessment and of the right to request a hearing under paragraph (g) of this section.

(d) Petition for relief. The person served with a notice of violation may request that no penalty be assessed or that the amount be reduced, by filing a petition for relief with the Commissioner within 45 calendar days of the date of service of the notice of violation (or of a proposed penalty amount, if later). The petition shall be in writing and signed by the person served with the notice of violation. If the person is a corporation, the petition must be signed by an officer authorized to sign such documents. The petition shall set forth in full the legal or factual basis for the requested relief.

(e) Assessment of penalty. (1) The Commissioner shall assess a civil penalty upon expiration of the period for filing a petition for relief, upon completion of review of any petition filed, or upon completion of informal discussions, whichever is later.

(2) The Commissioner shall take into consideration all available information, including information provided pursuant to paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section or furnished upon further request by the Commissioner.

(3) If the facts warrant a conclusion that no violation has occurred, the Commissioner shall so notify the person served with a notice of violation, and no penalty shall be assessed.

(4) Where the facts warrant a conclusion that a violation has occurred, the Commissioner shall determine a penalty amount in accordance with §1104.15.

(f) Notice of assessment. The Commissioner shall notify the person served with a notice of violation of the penalty amount assessed by serving a written notice of assessment, either in person or by registered or certified mail (return receipt requested). The Commissioner shall include in the notice of assessment:

(1) The facts and conclusions from which it was determined that a violation did occur;

(2) The basis in §1104.15 for determining the penalty amount assessed and/or any offer to mitigate or remit the penalty; and

(3) Notification of the right to request a hearing, including the procedures to be followed, and to seek judicial review of any final administrative decision assessing a civil penalty.

(g) Hearings. (1) Except where the right to request a hearing is deemed to have been waived as provided in paragraph (c)(4) of this section, the person served with a notice of assessment may file a written request for a hearing with the adjudicatory body specified in the notice. The person shall enclose with the request for hearing a copy of the notice of assessment, and shall deliver the request as specified in the notice of assessment, personally or by registered or certified mail (return receipt requested).

(2) Failure to deliver a written request for a hearing within 45 days of the date of service of the notice of assessment shall be deemed a waiver of the right to a hearing.

(3) Any hearing conducted pursuant to this section shall be held in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 554. In any such hearing, the amount of civil penalty assessed shall be determined in accordance with this part, and shall not be limited by the amount assessed by the Commissioner under paragraph (f) of this section or any offer of mitigation or remission made by the Commissioner.

(h) Final administrative decision. (1) Where the person served with a notice of violation has accepted the penalty pursuant to paragraph (c)(4) of this section, the notice of violation shall constitute the final administrative decision;

(2) Where the person served with a notice of assessment has not filed a timely request for a hearing pursuant to paragraph (g)(1) of this section, the notice of assessment shall constitute the final administrative decision;

(3) Where the person served with a notice of assessment has filed a timely request for a hearing pursuant to paragraph (g)(1) of this section, the decision resulting from the hearing or any applicable administrative appeal therefrom shall constitute the final administrative decision.

(i) Payment of penalty. (1) The person assessed a civil penalty shall have 45 calendar days from the date of issuance of the final administrative decision in which to make full payment of the penalty assessed, unless a timely request for appeal has been filed with a United States District Court as provided in section 7(b)(1) of the Act.

(2) Upon failure to pay the penalty, the Commissioner may request the Attorney General to institute a civil action to collect the penalty in a United States District Court for any district in which the person assessed a civil penalty is found, resides, or transacts business. Where the Commissioner is not represented by the Attorney General, a civil action may be initiated directly by the Commissioner.

(j) Other remedies not waived. Assessment of a penalty under this section shall not be deemed a waiver of the right to pursue other available legal or administrative remedies.

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§1104.15   Civil penalty amounts.

(a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person being assessed a civil penalty has not committed any previous violation of any prohibition in §1104.3 or of any term or condition included in a permit issued pursuant to this part, the maximum amount of the penalty shall be the full cost of restoration and repair of archaeological resources damaged plus the archaeological or commercial value of archaeological resources destroyed or not recovered.

(2) Where the person being assessed a civil penalty has committed any previous violation of any prohibition in §1104.3 or of any term or condition included in a permit issued pursuant to this part, the maximum amount of the penalty shall be double the cost of restoration and repair plus double the archaeological or commercial value of archaeological resources destroyed or not recovered.

(3) Violations limited to the removal of arrowheads located on the surface of the ground shall not be subject to the penalties prescribed in this section.

(b) Determination of penalty amount, mitigation, and remission. The Commissioner may assess a penalty amount less than the maximum amount of penalty and may offer to mitigate or remit the penalty.

(1) Determination of the penalty amount and/or a proposal to mitigate or remit the penalty may be based upon any of the following factors:

(i) Agreement by the person being assessed a civil penalty to return to the Commissioner archaeological resources removed from public lands;

(ii) Agreement by the person being assessed a civil penalty to assist the Commissioner in activity to preserve, restore, or otherwise contribute to the protection and study of archaeological resources on public lands;

(iii) Agreement by the person being assessed a civil penalty to provide information which will assist in the detection, prevention, or prosecution of violations of the Act or this part;

(iv) Demonstration of hardship or inability to pay, provided that this factor shall only be considered when the person being assessed a civil penalty has not been found to have previously violated the regulations in this part;

(v) Determination that the person being assessed a civil penalty did not willfully commit the violation;

(vi) Determination that the proposed penalty would constitute excessive punishment under the circumstances;

(vii) Determination of other mitigating circumstances appropriate to consideration in reaching a fair and expeditious assessment.

(2) When the penalty is for a violation which may have had an effect on a known Indian tribal religious or cultural site on public lands, the Commissioner should consult with and consider the interests of the affected tribe(s) prior to proposing to mitigate or remit the penalty.

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§1104.16   Other penalties and rewards.

(a) Section 6 of the Act contains criminal prohibitions and provisions for criminal penalties. Section 8(b) of the Act provides that archaeological resources, vehicles, or equipment involved in a violation may be subject to forfeiture.

(b) Section 8(a) of the Act provides for rewards to be made to persons who furnish information which leads to conviction for a criminal violation or to assessment of a civil penalty. The Commissioner may certify to the Secretary of the Treasury that a person is eligible to receive payment. Officers and employees of Federal, State, or local government who furnish information or render service in the performance of their official duties, and persons who have provided information under §1104.15(b)(1)(iii) shall not be certified eligible to receive payment of rewards.

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§1104.17   Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

(a) The Commissioner shall not make available to the public, under subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5 of the United States Code or any other provision of law, information concerning the nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions:

(1) The Commissioner may make information available, provided that the disclosure will further the purposes of the Act and this part, or the Act of June 27, 1960, as amended (16 U.S.C. 469-469c), without risking harm to the archaeological resource or to the site in which it is located.

(2) The Commissioner shall make information available, when the Governor of any State has submitted to the Commissioner a written request for information, concerning the archaeological resources within the requesting Governor's State, provided that the request includes:

(i) The specific archaeological resource or area about which information is sought;

(ii) The purpose for which the information is sought; and

(iii) The Governor's written commitment to adequately protect the confidentiality of the information.

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§1104.18   Report to the Secretary of the Interior.

The Commissioner, when requested by the Secretary of the Interior, shall submit such information as is necessary to enable the Secretary to comply with section 13 of the Act.

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