Title 22 Part 191
Title 22 → Chapter I → Subchapter T → Part 191
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Title 22 Part 191
PART 191—HOSTAGE RELIEF ASSISTANCE
§191.31 Applicable family benefits.
§191.32 Applicable benefits for hostages.
§191.33 Administration of benefits.
§191.34 Maximum limitation on benefits.
Authority: Hostage Relief Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-449 and sec. 4 of Act of 1949 (22 U.S.C. 2658)).
Source: 46 FR 17543, Mar. 19, 1981, unless otherwise noted.
§191.1 Declaration of hostile action.
(a) The Secretary of State from time to time shall declare when and where individuals in the civil or uniformed services of the United States, or a citizen or resident alien of the United States rendering personal services to the United States abroad similar to the service of a civil officer or employee of the United States, have been placed in captive status because of hostile action abroad directed against the United States and occurring or continuing between November 4, 1979, and such date as may be declared by the President under section 101(2)(A) of the Hostage Relief Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-449, hereafter “the Act”) or January 1, 1983, whichever is later. Each such declaration shall be published in the Federal Register.
(b) The Secretary of State upon his or her own initiative, or upon application under §191.2 shall determine which individuals in captive status as so declared shall be considered hostages eligible for benefits under the Act. The Secretary shall also determine who is eligible under the Act for benefits as a member of a family or household of a hostage. The determination of the Secretary shall be final, but any interested person may request reconsideration on the basis of information not considered at the time of original determination. The criteria for determination are set forth in sections 101 and 205 of the Act, and in these regulations.
§191.2 Application for determination of eligibility.
(a) Any person who believes that they or other persons known to them are either hostages as defined in the Act, or members of the family or household of hostages as defined in §191.3(a)(1), or a child eligible for benefits under subpart D, may apply for benefits under this subchapter for themselves, or on behalf of others entitled thereto.
(b) The application shall be in writing, should contain all identifying and other pertinent data available to the person applying about the person or persons claimed to be eligible, and should be addressed to the Assistant Secretary of State for Administration, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520. Applications may be filed at any time after publication of a declaration under §191.1(a) in the Federal Register, and during the period of its validity, or within 60 days after release from captivity. Later filing may be considered when in the opinion of the Secretary of State there is good cause for the late filing.
When used in this subchapter, unless otherwise specified, the terms—
(a) Family member means (1) a spouse, (2) an unmarried dependent child including a step-child or adopted child, (3) a person designated in official records or determined by the agency head or designee thereof to be a dependent, or (4) other persons such as parents, parents-in-law, persons who stand in the place of a spouse or parents, or other members of a household when fully justified by the circumstances of the hostage situation, as determined by the Secretary of State.
(b) Agency head means the head of an agency as defined in the Act (or successor agency) employing an individual determined to be an American hostage. The Secretary of State is the agency head with respect to any hostage not employed by an agency.
(c) Principal means the hostage whose captivity forms the basis for benefits under this subchapter for a family member.
§191.4 Notification of eligible persons.
The Assistant Secretary of State for Administration shall be responsible for notifying each individual determined to be eligible for benefits under the Act or, if that person is not available, a representative or Family Member of the hostage.
§191.5 Relationships among agencies.
(a) The Assistant Secretary of State for Administration shall promptly inform the head of any agency whenever an employee (including a member of the Armed Forces) in that agency, or Family Member of such employee, is determined to be eligible for benefits under this subchapter.
(b) In accordance with inter-agency agreements between the Department of State and relevant agencies—
(1) The Veterans Administration will periodically bill the Department of State for expenses it pays for each eligible person under subpart D of this subchapter plus the administrative costs of carrying out its responsibilities under this part.
(2) The Department of State will, on a periodic basis, determine the cost for services and benefits it provides to all eligible persons under this subchapter and bill each agency for the costs attributable to Principals (and Family Members) in or acting on behalf of the agency plus a proportionate share of related administrative expenses.
§191.6 Effective date.
This regulation is effective as of November 4, 1979. Reimbursement may be made for expenses approved under this subchapter for services rendered on or after such date.
Subpart B—Application of Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act
§191.10 Eligibility for benefits.
A person designated as a hostage under subpart A of this subchapter, other than a member of the Armed Forces covered by the provisions of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act of 1940, shall be eligible for benefits under this part.
§191.11 Applicable benefits.
(a) Eligible persons are entitled to the benefits provided by the Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act of 1940 (50 U.S.C. App. 501, et seq.), including the benefits provided by section 701 (50 U.S.C. App. 591) notwithstanding paragraph (c) thereof, but excluding the benefits provided by sections 104, 105, 106, 400 through 408, 501 through 512, and 514 (50 U.S.C. App. 514, 515, 516, 540 through 548, 561 through 572, and 574).
(b) In applying such Act for purposes of this section—
(1) The term “person in the military service” is deemed to include any such American hostage;
(2) The term “period of military service” is deemed to include the period during which such American hostage is in a captive status;
(3) References therein to the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, the Adjutant General of the Army, the Chief of Naval Personnel, and the Commandant, United States Marine Corps, or other officials of government are deemed to be references to the Secretary of State; and
(4) The term “dependents” shall, to the extent permissible by law, be construed to include “Family Members” as defined in section 101 of the Hostage Relief Act.
§191.12 Description of benefits.
The following material is included to assist persons affected, by providing a brief description of some of the provisions of the Civil Relief Act. Note that not all of the sections applicable to hostages have been included here. References to sections herein are references to the Civil Relief Act of 1940, as amended, followed by references in parentheses to the same section in the United States Code.
(a) Guarantors, endorsers. Section 103 (50 U.S.C. App. 513) provides that whenever a hostage is granted relief from the enforcement of an obligation, a court, in its discretion, may grant the same relief to guarantors and endorsers of the obligation. Amendments extend relief to accommodation makers and others primarily or secondarily liable on an obligation, and to sureties on a criminal bail bond. They provide, on certain conditions, that the benefits of the section with reference to persons primarily or secondarily liable on an obligation may be waived in writing.
(b) Written agreements. Section 107 (50 U.S.C. App. 517) provides that nothing contained in the Act shall prevent hostages from making certain arrangements with respect to their contracts and obligations, but requires that such arrangements be in writing.
(c) Protection in court. Section 200 (50 U.S.C. App. 520) provides that if a hostage is made defendant in a court action and is unable to appear in court, the court shall appoint an attorney to represent the hostage and protect the hostage's interests. Further, if a judgment is rendered against the hostage, an opportunity to reopen the case and present a defense, if meritorious, may be permitted within 90 days after release.
(d) Court postponement. Section 201 (50 U.S.C. App. 521) authorizes a court to postpone any court proceedings if a hostage is a party thereto and is unable to participate by reason of being a captive.
(e) Relief against penalties. Section 202 (50 U.S.C. App. 522) provides for relief against fines or penalties when a court proceeding involving a hostage is postponed, or when the fine or penalties are incurred for failure to perform any obligation. In the latter case, relief depends upon whether the hostage's ability to pay or perform is materially affected by being held captive.
(f) Postponement of action. Section 203 (50 U.S.C. App. 523) authorizes a court to postpone or vacate the execution of any judgment, attachment or garnishment.
(g) Period of postponement. Section 204 (50 U.S.C. App. 524) authorizes a court to postpone proceedings for the period of captivity, and for 3 months thereafter, or any part thereof.
(h) Extended time limits. Section 205 (50 U.S.C. App. 525) excludes the period of captivity from computing time under existing or future statutes of limitation. Amendments extend relief to include actions before administrative agencies, and provide that the period of captivity shall not be included in the period for redemption of real property sold to enforce any obligation, tax, or assessment. Section 207 excludes application of section 205 to any period of limitation prescribed by or under the internal revenue laws of the United States.
(i) Interest rates. Section 206 (50 U.S.C. App. 526) provides that interest on the obligations of hostages shall not exceed a specified per centum per annum, unless the court determines that ability to pay greater interest is not affected by being held captive.
(j) Misuse of benefits. Section 600 (50 U.S.C. App. 580) provides against transfers made with intent to delay the just enforcement of a civil right by taking advantage of the Act.
(k) Further relief. Section 700 (50 U.S.C. App. 590) provides that a person, during a period of captivity or 6 months thereafter, may apply to a court for relief with respect to obligations incurred prior to captivity, or any tax or assessment whether falling due prior to or during the period of captivity. The court may, on certain conditions, stay the enforcement of such obligations.
(l) Stay of eviction. Section 300 (50 U.S.C. App. 530) provides that a hostage's dependents shall not be evicted from their dwelling if the rental is $150 or less per month, except upon leave of a court. If it is proved that inability to pay rent is a result of being in captivity, the court is authorized to stay eviction proceedings for not longer than 3 months. An amendment extends relief to owners of the premises with respect to payments on mortgage and taxes.
(m) Contract and mortgage obligations. As provided by sections 301 and 302 of the Act (50 U.S.C. App. 531 and 532), as amended, contracts for the purchase of real and personal property, which originated prior to the period of captivity, may not be rescinded, terminated, or foreclosed, or the property repossessed, except as provided in section 107 (50 U.S.C. App. 517), unless by an order of a court. The mentioned sections give the court wide discretionary powers to make such disposition of the particular case as may be equitable in order to conserve the interests of both the hostage and the creditor. The cited sections further provide that the court may stay the proceedings for the period of captivity and 3 months thereafter, if in its opinion the ability of the hostage to perform the obligation is materially affected by reason of captivity. Section 303 (50 U.S.C. App. 533) provides that the court may appoint appraisers and, based upon their report, order such sum as may be just, if any, paid to hostages or their dependents, as a condition to foreclosing a mortgage, resuming possession of property, and rescinding or terminating a contract.
(n) Termination of a lease. Section 304 (50 U.S.C. App. 534) provides, in general, that a lease covering premises occupied for dwelling, business, or agricultural purpose, executed by persons who subsequently become hostages, may be terminated by a notice in writing given to the lessor, subject to such action as may be taken by a court on application of the lessor. Termination of a lease providing for monthly payment of rent shall not be effective until 30 days after the first date on which the next rental payment is due, and, in the case of other leases, on the last day of the month following the month when the notice is served.
(o) Assignment of life insurance policy. Section 305 (50 U.S.C. App. 535) provides that the assignee of a life insurance policy assigned as security, other than the insurer in connection with a policy loan, except upon certain conditions, shall not exercise any right with respect to the assignment during the period of captivity of the insured and one year thereafter, unless upon order of a court.
(p) Storage lien. Section 305 (50 U.S.C. App. 535) provides that a lien for storage of personal property may not be foreclosed except upon court order. The court may stay proceedings or make other just disposition.
(q) Extension of benefits to dependents. Section 306 (50 U.S.C. App. 536) extends the benefits to section 300 through 305 to dependents of a hostage.
(r) Real and personal property taxes. Section 500 (50 U.S.C. App. 560) forbids sale of property, except upon court leave, to enforce collection of taxes or assessments (other than taxes on income) on personal property or real property owned and occupied by the hostage or dependents thereof at the commencement of captivity and still occupied by the hostage's dependents or employees. The court may stay proceedings for a period not more than 6 months after termination of captivity. When by law such property may be sold to enforce collection, the hostage will have the right to redeem it within 6 months after termination of captivity. Unpaid taxes or assessments bear interest at 6 percent.
(s) Income taxes. Section 513 provides for deferment of payment of income taxes. However, section 204 of the Hostage Relief Act of 1980 provides for deferment and certain other relief, and should be referred to in order to determine statutory tax benefits in addition to those in section 513 of the Civil Relief Act.
(t) Certification of hostage. Section 601 provides that a certificate signed by the agency head shall be prima facie evidence that the person named has been a hostage during the period specified in the certification.
(u) Interlocutory orders. Section 602 (50 U.S.C. App. 582) provides that a court may revoke an interlocutory order it has issued pursuant to any provision of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act of 1940.
(v) Power of attorney. Section 701 (50 U.S.C. App. 591) provides that certain powers of attorney executed by a hostage which expire by their terms after the person was captured shall be automatically extended for the period of captivity. Exceptions are made with respect to powers of attorney which by their terms clearly indicate they are to expire on the date specified irrespective of hostage status. (Section 701 applies to American hostages notwithstanding paragraph (c) thereof which states that it applies only to powers of attorney issued during the “Vietnam era”.)
§191.13 Administration of benefits.
(a) The Assistant Secretary of State for Administration will issue certifications or other documents when required for purposes of the Civil Relief Act.
(b) The Assistant Secretary of State shall whenever possible promptly inform the chief legal officer of each State in which hostages maintain residence of all persons determined to be hostages eligible for assistance under this subpart.
Subpart C—Medical Benefits
§191.20 Eligibility for benefits.
A person designated as a hostage or Family Member of a hostage under subpart A of this subchapter shall be eligible for benefits under this subpart.
§191.21 Applicable benefits.
A person eligible for benefits under this part shall be eligible for authorized medical and health care at U.S. Government expense, and for payment of other authorized expenses related to such care or for obtaining such care for any illness or injury which is determined by the Secretary of State to be caused or materially aggravated by the hostage situation, to the extent that such care may not—
(a) Be provided or paid for under any other Government health or medical program, including, but not limited to, the programs administered by the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Labor and the Administrator of Veterans Affairs; or
(b) Be entitled to reimbursement by any private or Government health insurance or comparable plan.
§191.22 Administration of benefits.
(a) An eligible person, who desires medical or health care under this subpart or any person acting on behalf thereof, shall submit an application to the Office of Medical Services, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520 (hereafter referred to as the “Office”). The applicant shall supply all relevant information, including insurance information, requested by the Director of the Office. An eligible person may also submit claims to the Office for payment for emergency care when there is not time to obtain prior authorization as prescribed by this paragraph, and for payment for care received prior to or ongoing on the effective date of these regulations.
(b) The Office shall evaluate all requests for care and claims for reimbursement and determine, on behalf of the Secretary of State, whether the care in question is authorized under §191.21 of this subpart. The Office will authorize care, or payment for care when it determines the criteria of such section are met. Authorization shall include a determination as to the necessity and reasonableness of medical or health care.
(c) The Office will refer applicants eligible for benefits under other Government health programs to the Government agency administering those programs. Any portion of authorized care not provided or paid for under another Government program will be reimbursed under this subpart.
(d) Eligible persons may obtain authorized care from any licensed facility or health care provider of their choice approved by the Office. To the extent possible, the Office will attempt to arrange for authorized care to be provided in a Government facility at no cost to the patient.
(e) Authorized care provided by a private facility or health care provider will be paid or reimbursed under this subpart to the extent that the Office determines that costs do not exceed reasonable and customary charges for similar care in the locality.
(f) All bills for authorized medical or health care covered by insurance shall be submitted to the patient's insurance carrier for payment prior to submission to the Office for payment of the balance authorized by this part. The Office will request the health care providers to bill the insurance carrier and the Department of State for authorized care, rather than the patient.
(g) Eligible persons will be reimbursed by the Office for authorized travel to obtain an evaluation of their claim under paragraph (b) of this section and for other authorized travel to obtain medical or health care authorized by this subpart.
Any dispute between the Office and eligible persons concerning (a) whether medical or health care is required in a given case, (b) whether required care is incident to the hostage taking, or (c) whether the cost for any authorized care is reasonable and customary, shall be referred to the Medical Director, Department of State and the Foreign Service for a determination. If the person bringing the claim is not satisfied with the decision of the Medical Director, the dispute shall be referred to a medical board composed of three physicians, one appointed by the Medical Director, one by the eligible person and the third by the first two members. A majority decision by the board shall be binding on all parties.
Subpart D—Educational Benefits
§191.30 Eligibility for benefits.
(a) A spouse or unmarried dependent child aged 18 or above of a hostage as determined under subpart A of this subchapter shall be eligible for benefits under §191.31 of this subpart. (Certain limitations apply, however, to persons eligible for direct assistance through other programs of the Veterans Administration under chapter 35 of title 38, United States Code).
(b) A Principal (see definition in §191.3) designated as a hostage under Subpart A of this subchapter, who intends to change jobs or careers because of the hostage experience and who desires additional training for this purpose, shall be eligible for benefits under §191.32 of this part unless such person is eligible for comparable benefits under title 38 of the United States Code as determined by the Administrator of the Veterans Administration.
§191.31 Applicable family benefits.
(a) An eligible spouse or child shall be paid (by advancement or reimbursement) for expenses incurred for subsistence, tuition, fees, supplies, books, and equipment, and other educational expenses, while attending an educational or training institution approved in accordance with procedures established by the Veterans Administration, which shall be comparable to procedures established pursuant to chapters 35 and 36 of title 38 U.S.C.
(b) Except as provide in paragraph (c) or (d) of this section), payments shall be available under this subsection for an eligible spouse or child for education or training which occurs—
(1) 90 days after the Principal is placed in a captive status, and
(i) Through the end of any semester or quarter which begins before the date on which the Principal ceases to be in a captive status, or
(ii) If the educational or training institution is not operated on a semester or quarter system, the earlier of the end of any course which began before such date or the end of the twelve-week period following that date.
(c) In special circumstances and within the limitation of §191.34, the Secretary of State may, under the criteria and procedures set forth in §191.33, approve payments for education or training under this subsection which occurs after the date determined under paragraph (b) of this section.
(d) In the event a Principal dies and the death is determined by the Secretary of State to be incident to that individual being a hostage, payments shall be available under this subsection for education or training of a spouse or child of the Principal which occurs after the date of death, up to the maximum that may be authorized under §191.34.
§191.32 Applicable benefits for hostages.
(a) When authorized by the Secretary of State a Principal, following released from captivity, shall be paid (by advancement or reimbursement) for expenses incurred for subsistence, tuition, fees, supplies, books and equipment, and other educational expenses, while attending an educational or training institution approved in accordance with procedures established by the Veterans Administration comparable to procedures established pursuant to chapters 35 and 36 of title 38 U.S.C. Payments shall be available under this subsection for education or training which occurs on or before—
(1) The end of any semester or quarter (as appropriate) which begins before the date which is 10 years after the day on which the Principal ceases to be in a captive status, or
(2) If the educational or training institution is not operated on a semester or quarter system, the earlier of the end of any course which began before such date or the end of the twelve-week period following that date.
(b) A person eligible for benefits under this subsection shall not be required to separate from Government service in order to undertake the training or education, but while in Government service, may only receive such training or education during off-duty hours or during periods of approved leave.
§191.33 Administration of benefits.
(a) Any person desiring benefits under this part shall apply in writing to the Assistant Secretary of State for Administration, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520. The application shall specify the benefits desired and the basis of eligibility for those benefits. The Secretary of State shall make determinations of eligibility for benefits under this part, and shall forward approved applications to the Veterans Administration and advise the applicant of the name and address of the office in the Veterans Administration that will counsel the eligible persons on how to obtain the benefits that have been approved. Persons whose applications are disapproved shall be advised of the reasons for the disapproval.
(b) The Veterans Administration shall provide the same level and kind of assistance, including payments (by advancement or reimbursement) for authorized expenses up to the same maximum amounts, to spouses and children of hostages, and to Principals following their release from captivity as it does to eligible spouses and children of veterans and to eligible veterans, respectively, under chapters 35 and 36 of title 38, United States Code. The Veterans Administration shall, following consultation with the Secretary of State and under procedures it has established to administer section 1724 of title 38, United States Code, discontinue assistance for any individual whose conduct or progress is unsatisfactory under standards consistent with those established pursuant to such section 1724.
(c) An Advisory Board shall be established to advise on eligibility for benefits under paragraphs (c) and (d) of §§191.31 and 191.32. The Board shall be composed of the Assistant Secretary of State for Administration as Chairperson, the Director of the Office of Medical Services of the Department of State, the Executive Director of the regional bureau of the Department of State in whose region the relevant hostile action occurred, the Director of Personnel or other designee of the applicable employing agency, and a representative of the Veterans Administration designated by the Administrator.
(d) If an application is received from a spouse or child for extended training under §191.31(c), the Secretary of Administration shall determine with the advice of the Advisory Board whether the Principal, following release from captivity, is incapacitated by the hostage experience to the extent that (1) he or she has not returned to full-time active duty and is unlikely to be able to resume the normal duties of his or her position or career, or (2) in the event of a separation from Government service, a comparable position or career, for at least six months from the date the Principal is released from captivity. If the Secretary makes such a determination, he or she may approve, within the limits of §191.34, an application under §191.31(c) for up to one year of education or training. If the Principal remains incapacitated, the Secretary may approve additional training or education up to the maximum authorized under §191.34.
§191.34 Maximum limitation on benefits.
(a) In no event may assistance be provided under this subpart for any individual for a period in excess of 45 months, or the equivalent thereof in part-time education or training.
(b) The eligibility of a spouse for benefits under paragraph (c) or (d) of §191.31 shall expire on a date which is 10 years after the date of the release of the hostage, or the death of the hostage, respectively. The eligibility of a dependent child for benefits under such paragraphs (c) and (d) shall expire on the 26th birthday of such child or on such later date as determined by the Administrator of the Veterans Administration, as would be applicable if section 1712 of title 38, United States Code, were applicable.