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Title 16 Part 455

Title 16 → Chapter I → Subchapter D → Part 455

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 16 Part 455

e-CFR data is current as of November 15, 2018

Title 16Chapter ISubchapter D → Part 455


Title 16: Commercial Practices


§455.1   General duties of a used vehicle dealer; definitions.

(a) It is a deceptive act or practice for any used vehicle dealer, when that dealer sells or offers for sale a used vehicle in or affecting commerce as commerce is defined in the Federal Trade Commission Act:

(1) To misrepresent the mechanical condition of a used vehicle;

(2) To misrepresent the terms of any warranty offered in connection with the sale of a used vehicle; and

(3) To represent that a used vehicle is sold with a warranty when the vehicle is sold without any warranty.

(b) It is an unfair act or practice for any used vehicle dealer, when that dealer sells or offers for sale a used vehicle in or affecting commerce as commerce is defined in the Federal Trade Commission Act:

(1) To fail to disclose, prior to sale, that a used vehicle is sold without any warranty; and

(2) To fail to make available, prior to sale, the terms of any written warranty offered in connection with the sale of a used vehicle.

(c) The Commission has adopted this Rule in order to prevent the unfair and deceptive acts or practices defined in paragraphs (a) and (b). It is a violation of this Rule for any used vehicle dealer to fail to comply with the requirements set forth in §§455.2 through 455.5 of this part. If a used vehicle dealer complies with the requirements of §§455.2 through 455.5 of this part, the dealer does not violate this Rule.

(d) The following definitions shall apply for purposes of this part:

(1) Vehicle means any motorized vehicle, other than a motorcycle, with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of less than 8500 lbs., a curb weight of less than 6,000 lbs., and a frontal area of less than 46 sq. ft.

(2) Used vehicle means any vehicle driven more than the limited use necessary in moving or road testing a new vehicle prior to delivery to a consumer, but does not include any vehicle sold only for scrap or parts (title documents surrendered to the State and a salvage certificate issued).

(3) Dealer means any person or business which sells or offers for sale a used vehicle after selling or offering for sale five (5) or more used vehicles in the previous twelve months, but does not include a bank or financial institution, a business selling a used vehicle to an employee of that business, or a lessor selling a leased vehicle by or to that vehicle's lessee or to an employee of the lessee.

(4) Consumer means any person who is not a used vehicle dealer.

(5) Warranty means any undertaking in writing, in connection with the sale by a dealer of a used vehicle, to refund, repair, replace, maintain or take other action with respect to such used vehicle and provided at no extra charge beyond the price of the used vehicle.

(6) Implied warranty means an implied warranty arising under State law (as modified by the Magnuson-Moss Act) in connection with the sale by a dealer of a used vehicle.

(7) Service contract means a contract in writing for any period of time or any specific mileage to refund, repair, replace, or maintain a used vehicle and provided at an extra charge beyond the price of the used vehicle, unless offering such contract is “the business of insurance” and such business is regulated by State law.

(8) You means any dealer, or any agent or employee of a dealer, except where the term appears on the window form required by §455.2(a).

[49 FR 45725, Nov. 19, 1984, as amended at 81 FR 81678, Nov. 18, 2016]

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§455.2   Consumer sales—window form.

(a) General duty. Before you offer a used vehicle for sale to a consumer, you must prepare, fill in as applicable and display on that vehicle the applicable “Buyers Guide” illustrated by Figures 1-2 at the end of this part. Dealers may use remaining stocks of the version of the Buyers Guide in effect prior to the effective date of this Rule for up to one year after that effective date (i.e., until January 27, 2018). Dealers who opt to use their existing stock and choose to disclose the applicability of a non-dealer warranty, must add the following as applicable below the “Full/Limited Warranty” disclosure: “Manufacturer's Warranty still applies. The manufacturer's original warranty has not expired on the vehicle;” “Manufacturer's Used Vehicle Warranty Applies;” or “Other Used Vehicle Warranty Applies,” followed by the statement, “Ask the dealer for a copy of the warranty document and an explanation of warranty coverage, exclusions, and repair obligations.”

(1) The Buyers Guide shall be displayed prominently and conspicuously in any location on a vehicle and in such a fashion that both sides are readily readable. You may remove the form temporarily from the vehicle during any test drive, but you must return it as soon as the test drive is over.

(2) The capitalization, punctuation and wording of all items, headings, and text on the form must be exactly as required by this Rule. The entire form must be printed in 100% black ink on a white stock no smaller than 11 inches high by 714 inches wide in the type styles, sizes and format indicated. When filling out the form, follow the directions in paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section and §455.4.

(b) Warranties—(1) No Implied Warranty—“As Is”/No Dealer Warranty. (i) If you offer the vehicle without any implied warranty, i.e., “as is,” mark the box appearing in Figure 1. If you offer the vehicle with implied warranties only, substitute the IMPLIED WARRANTIES ONLY disclosure specified in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section, and mark the IMPLIED WARRANTIES ONLY box illustrated by Figure 2. If you first offer the vehicle “as is” or with implied warranties only but then sell it with a warranty, cross out the “As Is—No Dealer Warranty” or “Implied Warranties Only” disclosure, and fill in the warranty terms in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(ii) If your State law limits or prohibits “as is” sales of vehicles, that State law overrides this part and this rule does not give you the right to sell “as is.” In such States, the heading “As Is—No Dealer Warranty” and the paragraph immediately accompanying that phrase must be deleted from the form, and the following heading and paragraph must be substituted as illustrated in the Buyers Guide in Figure 2. If you sell vehicles in States that permit “as is” sales, but you choose to offer implied warranties only, you must also use the following disclosure instead of “As Is—No Dealer Warranty” as illustrated by the Buyers Guide in Figure 2. See §455.5 for the Spanish version of this disclosure.

IMPLIED WARRANTIES ONLY

The dealer doesn't make any promises to fix things that need repair when you buy the vehicle or afterward. But implied warranties under your state's laws may give you some rights to have the dealer take care of serious problems that were not apparent when you bought the vehicle.

(2) Full/Limited Warranty. If you offer the vehicle with a warranty, briefly describe the warranty terms in the space provided. This description must include the following warranty information:

(i) Whether the warranty offered is “Full” or “Limited.” Mark the box next to the appropriate designation. A “Full” warranty is defined by the Federal Minimum Standards for Warranty set forth in section 104 of the Magnuson-Moss Act, 15 U.S.C. 2304 (1975). The Magnuson-Moss Act does not apply to vehicles manufactured before July 4, 1975. Therefore, if you choose not to designate “Full” or “Limited” for such vehicles, cross out both designations, leaving only “Warranty.”

(ii) Which of the specific systems are covered (for example, “engine, transmission, differential”). You cannot use shorthand, such as “drive train” or “power train” for covered systems.

(iii) The duration (for example, “30 days or 1,000 miles, whichever occurs first”).

(iv) The percentage of the repair cost paid by you (for example, “The dealer will pay 100% of the labor and 100% of the parts.”)

(v) You may, but are not required to, disclose that a warranty from a source other than the dealer applies to the vehicle. If you choose to disclose the applicability of a non-dealer warranty, mark the applicable box or boxes beneath “NON-DEALER WARRANTIES FOR THIS VEHICLE” to indicate: “MANUFACTURER'S WARRANTY STILL APPLIES. The manufacturer's original warranty has not expired on some components of the vehicle,” “MANUFACTURER'S USED VEHICLE WARRANTY APPLIES,” and/or “OTHER USED VEHICLE WARRANTY APPLIES.”

If, following negotiations, you and the buyer agree to changes in the warranty coverage, mark the changes on the form, as appropriate. If you first offer the vehicle with a warranty, but then sell it without one, cross out the offered warranty and mark either the “As Is—No Dealer Warranty” box or the “Implied Warranties Only” box, as appropriate.

(3) Service contracts. If you make a service contract available on the vehicle, you must add the following heading and paragraph below the Non-Dealer Warranties Section and mark the box labeled “Service Contract,” unless offering such service contract is “the business of insurance” and such business is regulated by State law. See §455.5 for the Spanish version of this disclosure.

SERVICE CONTRACT. A service contract on this vehicle is available for an extra charge. Ask for details about coverage, deductible, price, and exclusions. If you buy a service contract within 90 days of your purchase of this vehicle, implied warranties under your state's laws may give you additional rights.

(c) Name and Address. Put the name and address of your dealership in the space provided. If you do not have a dealership, use the name and address of your place of business (for example, your service station) or your own name and home address.

(d) Make, Model, Model Year, VIN. Put the vehicle's make (for example, “Chevrolet”), model (for example, “Corvette”), model year, and Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) in the spaces provided. You may write the dealer stock number in the space provided or you may leave this space blank.

(e) Complaints. In the space provided, put the name and telephone number of the person who should be contacted if any complaints arise after sale.

(f) Optional Signature Line. In the space provided for the name of the individual to be contacted in the event of complaints after sale, you may include a signature line for a buyer's signature. If you opt to include a signature line, you must include a disclosure in immediate proximity to the signature line stating: “I hereby acknowledge receipt of the Buyers Guide at the closing of this sale.” You may pre-print this language on the form if you choose.

[49 FR 45725, Nov. 19, 1984, as amended at 60 FR 62205, Dec. 5, 1995; 77 FR 73914, Dec. 12, 2012; 81 FR 81678, Nov. 18, 2016]

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§455.3   Window form.

(a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window form displayed under §455.2 containing all of the disclosures required by the Rule and reflecting the warranty coverage agreed upon. If you prefer, you may give the buyer a copy of the original, so long as that copy accurately reflects all of the disclosures required by the Rule and the warranty coverage agreed upon.

(b) Incorporated into contract. The information on the final version of the window form is incorporated into the contract of sale for each used vehicle you sell to a consumer. Information on the window form overrides any contrary provisions in the contract of sale. To inform the consumer of these facts, include the following language conspicuously in each consumer contract of sale:

The information you see on the window form for this vehicle is part of this contract. Information on the window form overrides any contrary provisions in the contract of sale.

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§455.4   Contrary statements.

You may not make any statements, oral or written, or take other actions which alter or contradict the disclosures required by §§455.2 and 455.3. You may negotiate over warranty coverage, as provided in §455.2(b) of this part, as long as the final warranty terms are identified in the contract of sale and summarized on the copy of the window form you give to the buyer.

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§455.5   Spanish language sales.

(a) If you conduct a sale in Spanish, the window form required by §455.2 and the contract disclosures required by §455.3 must be in that language. You may display on a vehicle both an English language window form and a Spanish language translation of that form. Use the translation and layout for Spanish language sales in Figures 4, 5, and 6.

(b) Use the following language for the “Implied Warranties Only” disclosure when required by §455.2(b)(1) as illustrated by Figure 5:

SOLO GARANTÍAS IMPLÍCITAS

El concesionario no hace ninguna promesa de reparar lo que sea necesario cuando compre el vehículo o posteriormente. Sin embargo, las garantías implícitas según las leyes estatales podrían darle algunos derechos para hacer que el concesionario se encargue de ciertos problemas que no fueran evidentes cuando compró el vehículo.

(c) Use the following language for the “Service Contract” disclosure required by §455.2(b)(3) as illustrated by Figures 4 and 5:

CONTRATO DE MANTENIMIENTO. Con un cargo adicional, puede obtener un contrato de mantenimiento para este vehículo. Pregunte acerca de los detalles de la cobertura, los deducibles, el precio y las exclusiones. Si compra un contrato de mantenimiento dentro de los 90 días desde el momento en que compró el vehículo, las garantías implícitas según las leyes de su estado podrían darle derechos adicionales.

(d) Use the following language if you choose to use the Optional Signature Line provided by §455.2(f):

Por este medio confirmo que he recibido copia de la Guía del Comprador al momento de la compraventa.

[81 FR 81679, Nov. 18, 2016]

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§455.6   State exemptions.

(a) If, upon application to the Commission by an appropriate State agency, the Commission determines, that—

(1) There is a State requirement in effect which applies to any transaction to which this rule applies; and

(2) That State requirement affords an overall level of protection to consumers which is as great as, or greater than, the protection afforded by this Rule; then the Commission's Rule will not be in effect in that State to the extent specified by the Commission in its determination, for as long as the State administers and enforces effectively the State requirement.

(b) Applications for exemption under subsection (a) should be directed to the Secretary of the Commission. When appropriate, proceedings will be commenced in order to make a determination described in paragraph (a) of this section, and will be conducted in accordance with subpart C of part 1 of the Commission's Rules of Practice.

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§455.7   Severability.

The provisions of this part are separate and severable from one another. If any provision is determined to be invalid, it is the Commission's intention that the remaining provisions shall continue in effect.

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Figure 1 to Part 455—“AS IS” - NO DEALER WARRANTY Buyers Guide (English)

eCFR graphic er18no16.402.gif

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[81 FR 81679, Nov. 18, 2016]

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Figure 2 to Part 455—IMPLIED WARRANTIES ONLY Buyers Guide (English)

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[81 FR 81679, Nov. 18, 2016]

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Figure 3 to Part 455—Back of Buyers Guide (English)

eCFR graphic er18no16.404.gif

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[81 FR 81679, Nov. 18, 2016]

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Figure 4 to Part 455—“AS IS” - NO DEALER WARRANTY Buyers Guide (Spanish)

eCFR graphic er18no16.405.gif

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[81 FR 81679, Nov. 18, 2016]

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Figure 5 to Part 455—IMPLIED WARRANTIES ONLY Buyers Guide (Spanish)

eCFR graphic er18no16.406.gif

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[81 FR 81679, Nov. 18, 2016]

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Figure 6 to Part 455—Back of Buyers Guide (Spanish)

eCFR graphic er18no16.407.gif

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[81 FR 81679, Nov. 18, 2016]

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