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Title 10 Part 34 → Subpart C

Title 10 → Chapter I → Part 34 → Subpart C

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 10 Part 34 → Subpart C

e-CFR data is current as of September 12, 2019

Title 10Chapter IPart 34 → Subpart C


Title 10: Energy
PART 34—LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS


§34.20   Performance requirements for industrial radiography equipment.

Equipment used in industrial radiographic operations must meet the following minimum criteria:

(a)(1) Each radiographic exposure device, source assembly or sealed source, and all associated equipment must meet the requirements specified in American National Standards Institute, N432-1980 “Radiological Safety for the Design and Construction of Apparatus for Gamma Radiography,” (published as NBS Handbook 136, issued January 1981). This publication has been approved for incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a)and 1 CFR part 51. This publication may be purchased from the American National Standards Institute, Inc., 25 West 43rd Street, New York, New York 10036; Telephone: (212) 642-4900. Copies of the document are available for inspection at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Library, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. A copy of the document is also on file at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal__register/code__of__federal__regulations/ibr__locations.html.

(2) Engineering analysis may be submitted by an applicant or licensee to demonstrate the applicability of previously performed testing on similar individual radiography equipment components. Upon review, the Commission may find this an acceptable alternative to actual testing of the component pursuant to the above referenced standard.

(b) In addition to the requirements specified in paragraph (a) of this section, the following requirements apply to radiographic exposure devices, source changers, source assemblies and sealed sources.

(1) The licensee shall ensure that each radiographic exposure device has attached to it a durable, legible, clearly visible label bearing the—

(i) Chemical symbol and mass number of the radionuclide in the device;

(ii) Activity and the date on which this activity was last measured;

(iii) Model (or product code) and serial number of the sealed source;

(iv) Manufacturer's identity of the sealed source; and

(v) Licensee's name, address, and telephone number.

(2) Radiographic exposure devices intended for use as Type B transport containers must meet the applicable requirements of 10 CFR part 71.

(3) Modification of radiographic exposure devices, source changers, and source assemblies and associated equipment is prohibited, unless the design of any replacement component,including source holder, source assembly, controls or guide tubes would not compromise the design safety features of the system.

(c) In addition to the requirements specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, the following requirements apply to radiographic exposure devices, source assemblies, and associated equipment that allow the source to be moved out of the device for radiographic operations or to source changers.

(1) The coupling between the source assembly and the control cable must be designed in such a manner that the source assembly will not become disconnected if cranked outside the guide tube. The coupling must be such that it cannot be unintentionally disconnected under normal and reasonably foreseeable abnormal conditions.

(2) The device must automatically secure the source assembly when it is cranked back into the fully shielded position within the device. This securing system may only be released by means of a deliberate operation on the exposure device.

(3) The outlet fittings, lock box, and drive cable fittings on each radiographic exposure device must be equipped with safety plugs or covers which must be installed during storage and transportation to protect the source assembly from water, mud, sand or other foreign matter.

(4)(i) Each sealed source or source assembly must have attached to it or engraved on it, a durable, legible, visible label with the words: “DANGER—RADIOACTIVE.”

(ii) The label may not interfere with the safe operation of the exposure device or associated equipment.

(5) The guide tube must be able to withstand a crushing test that closely approximates the crushing forces that are likely to be encountered during use, and be able to withstand a kinking resistance test that closely approximates the kinking forces that are likely to be encountered during use.

(6) Guide tubes must be used when moving the source out of the device.

(7) An exposure head or similar device designed to prevent the source assembly from passing out of the end of the guide tube must be attached to the outermost end of the guide tube during industrial radiography operations.

(8) The guide tube exposure head connection must be able to withstand the tensile test for control units specified in ANSI N432-1980.

(9) Source changers must provide a system for ensuring that the source will not be accidentally withdrawn from the changer when connecting or disconnecting the drive cable to or from a source assembly.

(d) All radiographic exposure devices and associated equipment in use after January 10, 1996, must comply with the requirements of this section.

(e) Notwithstanding paragraph (a)(1) of this section, equipment used in industrial radiographic operations need not comply with §8.9.2(c) of the Endurance Test in American National Standards Institute N432-1980, if the prototype equipment has been tested using a torque value representative of the torque that an individual using the radiography equipment can realistically exert on the lever or crankshaft of the drive mechanism.

[62 FR 28963, May 28, 1997, as amended at 69 FR 18803, Apr. 9, 2004; 77 FR 39906, July 6, 2012]

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§34.21   Limits on external radiation levels from storage containers and source changers.

The maximum exposure rate limits for storage containers and source changers are 2 millisieverts (200 millirem) per hour at any exterior surface, and 0.1 millisieverts (10 millirem) per hour at 1 meter from any exterior surface with the sealed source in the shielded position.

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§34.23   Locking of radiographic exposure devices, storage containers and source changers.

(a) Each radiographic exposure device must have a lock or outer locked container designed to prevent unauthorized or accidental removal of the sealed source from its shielded position. The exposure device and/or its container must be kept locked (and if a keyed-lock, with the key removed at all times) when not under the direct surveillance of a radiographer or a radiographer's assistant except at permanent radiographic installations as stated in §34.51. In addition, during radiographic operations the sealed source assembly must be secured in the shielded position each time the source is returned to that position.

(b) Each sealed source storage container and source changer must have a lock or outer locked container designed to prevent unauthorized or accidental removal of the sealed source from its shielded position. Storage containers and source changers must be kept locked (and if a keyed-lock, with the key removed at all times) when containing sealed sources except when under the direct surveillance of a radiographer or a radiographer's assistant.

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§34.25   Radiation survey instruments.

(a) The licensee shall keep sufficient calibrated and operable radiation survey instruments at each location where radioactive material is present to make the radiation surveys required by this part and by 10 CFR part 20 of this chapter. Instrumentation required by this section must be capable of measuring a range from 0.02 millisieverts (2 millirems) per hour through 0.01 sievert (1 rem) per hour.

(b) The licensee shall have each radiation survey instrument required under paragraph (a) of this section calibrated—

(1) At intervals not to exceed 6 months and after instrument servicing, except for battery changes;

(2) For linear scale instruments, at two points located approximately one-third and two-thirds of full-scale on each scale; for logarithmic scale instruments, at mid-range of each decade, and at two points of at least one decade; and for digital instruments, at 3 points between 0.02 and 10 millisieverts (2 and 1000 millirems) per hour; and

(3) So that an accuracy within plus or minus 20 percent of the calibration source can be demonstrated at each point checked.

(c) The licensee shall maintain records of the results of the instrument calibrations in accordance with §34.65.

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§34.27   Leak testing and replacement of sealed sources.

(a) The replacement of any sealed source fastened to or contained in a radiographic exposure device and leak testing of any sealed source must be performed by persons authorized to do so by the NRC or an Agreement State.

(b) The opening, repair, or modification of any sealed source must be performed by persons specifically authorized to do so by the Commission or an Agreement State.

(c) Testing and recordkeeping requirements. (1) Each licensee who uses a sealed source shall have the source tested for leakage at intervals not to exceed 6 months. The leak testing of the source must be performed using a method approved by the Commission or by an Agreement State. The wipe sample should be taken from the nearest accessible point to the sealed source where contamination might accumulate. The wipe sample must be analyzed for radioactive contamination. The analysis must be capable of detecting the presence of 185 Bq (0.005 microcurie) of radioactive material on the test sample and must be performed by a person specifically authorized by the Commission or an Agreement State to perform the analysis.

(2) The licensee shall maintain records of the leak tests in accordance with §34.67.

(3) Unless a sealed source is accompanied by a certificate from the transferor that shows that it has been leak tested within 6 months before the transfer, it may not be used by the licensee until tested for leakage. Sealed sources that are in storage and not in use do not require leak testing, but must be tested before use or transfer to another person if the interval of storage exceeds 6 months.

(d) Any test conducted pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section which reveals the presence of 185 Bq (0.005 microcurie) or more of removable radioactive material must be considered evidence that the sealed source is leaking. The licensee shall immediately withdraw the equipment involved from use and shall have it decontaminated and repaired or disposed of in accordance with Commission regulations. A report must be filed with the Director, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards , by an appropriate method listed in §30.6(a) of this chapter, the report to be filed within 5 days of any test with results that exceed the threshold in this paragraph (d), and to describe the equipment involved, the test results, and the corrective action taken. A copy of the report must be sent to the Administrator of the appropriate Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regional Office listed in appendix D of 10 CFR part 20 of this chapter “Standards for Protection Against Radiation.”

(e) Each exposure device using depleted uranium (DU) shielding and an “S” tube configuration must be tested for DU contamination at intervals not to exceed 12 months. The analysis must be capable of detecting the presence of 185 Bq (0.005 microcuries) of radioactive material on the test sample and must be performed by a person specifically authorized by the Commission or an Agreement State to perform the analysis. Should such testing reveal the presence of 185 Bq (0.005 microcuries) or more of removable DU contamination, the exposure device must be removed from use until an evaluation of the wear on the S-tube has been made. Should the evaluation reveal that the S-tube is worn through, the device may not be used again. DU shielded devices do not have to be tested for DU contamination while in storage and not in use. Before using or transferring such a device however, the device must be tested for DU contamination if the interval of storage exceeded 12 months. A record of the DU leak-test must be made in accordance with §34.67. Licensees will have until June 27, 1998, to comply with the DU leak-testing requirements of this paragraph.

[62 FR 28963, May 28, 1997, as amended at 63 FR 37061, July 9, 1998; 67 FR 77652, Dec. 19, 2002; 68 FR 58805, Oct. 10, 2003; 73 FR 5719, Jan. 31, 2008]

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§34.29   Quarterly inventory.

(a) Each licensee shall conduct a quarterly physical inventory to account for all sealed sources and for devices containing depleted uranium received and possessed under this license.

(b) The licensee shall maintain records of the quarterly inventory in accordance with §34.69.

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§34.31   Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey instruments.

(a) The licensee shall perform visual and operability checks on survey meters, radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment and source changers before use on each day the equipment is to be used to ensure that the equipment is in good working condition, that the sources are adequately shielded, and that required labeling is present. Survey instrument operability must be performed using check sources or other appropriate means. If equipment problems are found, the equipment must be removed from service until repaired.

(b) Each licensee shall have written procedures for:

(1) Inspection and routine maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, source changers, associated equipment, transport and storage containers, and survey instruments at intervals not to exceed 3 months or before the first use thereafter to ensure the proper functioning of components important to safety. Replacement components shall meet design specifications. If equipment problems are found, the equipment must be removed from service until repaired.

(2) Inspection and maintenance necessary to maintain the Type B packaging used to transport radioactive materials. The inspection and maintenance program must include procedures to assure that Type B packages are shipped and maintained in accordance with the certificate of compliance or other approval.

(c) Records of equipment problems and of any maintenance performed under paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section must be made in accordance with §34.73.

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§34.33   Permanent radiographic installations.

(a) Each entrance that is used for personnel access to the high radiation area in a permanent radiographic installation must have either:

(1) An entrance control of the type described in §20.1601(a)(1) of this chapter that reduces the radiation level upon entry into the area, or

(2) Both conspicuous visible and audible warning signals to warn of the presence of radiation. The visible signal must be actuated by radiation whenever the source is exposed. The audible signal must be actuated when an attempt is made to enter the installation while the source is exposed.

(b) The alarm system must be tested for proper operation with a radiation source each day before the installation is used for radiographic operations. The test must include a check of both the visible and audible signals. Entrance control devices that reduce the radiation level upon entry (designated in paragraph (a)(1) of this section) must be tested monthly. If an entrance control device or an alarm is operating improperly, it must be immediately labeled as defective and repaired within 7 calendar days. The facility may continue to be used during this 7-day period, provided the licensee implements the continuous surveillance requirements of §34.51 and uses an alarming ratemeter. Test records for entrance controls and audible and visual alarm must be maintained in accordance with §34.75.

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§34.35   Labeling, storage, and transportation.

(a) The licensee may not use a source changer or a container to store licensed material unless the source changer or the storage container has securely attached to it a durable, legible, and clearly visible label bearing the standard trefoil radiation caution symbol conventional colors, i.e., magenta, purple or black on a yellow background, having a minimum diameter of 25 mm, and the wording

CAUTION*

RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

NOTIFY CIVIL AUTHORITIES (or “NAME OF COMPANY”)

*____ or “DANGER”

(b) The licensee may not transport licensed material unless the material is packaged, and the package is labeled, marked, and accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR part 71.

(c) Locked radiographic exposure devices and storage containers must be physically secured to prevent tampering or removal by unauthorized personnel. The licensee shall store licensed material in a manner which will minimize danger from explosion or fire.

(d) The licensee shall lock and physically secure the transport package containing licensed material in the transporting vehicle to prevent accidental loss, tampering, or unauthorized removal of the licensed material from the vehicle.

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